Skip to main content

Hardee, William Joseph

William Joseph Hardee, 1815–73, American army officer, Confederate general, b. Camden co., Ga. A graduate of West Point, he served with distinction in the Mexican War and compiled Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, a standard army textbook of the time (1853–55). In 1856, he was appointed commandant of cadets at West Point. After Georgia seceded, he became a Confederate brigadier general. Hardee joined A. S. Johnston's army and fought at Shiloh (Apr., 1862). He was promoted to lieutenant general in October and was an able corps commander in the Army of Tennessee, fighting at Perryville, Murfreesboro, and Missionary Ridge and in the Atlanta campaign. He commanded against General Sherman in Georgia and South Carolina (1864–65), abandoning Savannah and Charleston to union troops and surrendering to Sherman in North Carolina in Apr., 1865.

See study by N. C. Hughes (1965).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hardee, William Joseph." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 23 Mar. 2018 <>.

"Hardee, William Joseph." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (March 23, 2018).

"Hardee, William Joseph." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 23, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.