Skip to main content

Gilpin, William

William Gilpin, 1813–94, U.S. army officer, politician, and businessman, b. Philadelphia, grad. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1833. He dropped out of West Point, but joined the army (1836) and fought in the Seminole War. In 1838 he moved to St. Louis, editing a newspaper and practicing law before joining (1843) John C. Frémont's expedition to the Pacific Northwest, where Gilpin helped organize the Oregon Territory's government. He fought in the Mexican War (1846–48), retiring as a lieutenant colonel, and returned to Missouri and the law. After gold was discovered in Colorado, Gilpin's Central Gold Region (1859) linked manifest destiny with the greater Mississippi Valley and promoted Denver as its principal city. Appointed (1861) the first territorial governor of Colorado, he organized the 1st Colorado Volunteers, which fought off a Confederate invasion, but the financial disarray he created by acting without authorization led to his removal from office (1862). He later made a fortune in land speculation.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gilpin, William." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 16 Jul. 2019 <>.

"Gilpin, William." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (July 16, 2019).

"Gilpin, William." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 16, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.