Gardiner, Sir Christopher
Sir Christopher Gardiner, fl. 1630–32, figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay colony. When the Puritans arrived in Massachusetts Bay in 1630, they found that Gardiner had preceded them. Although he was living with a woman who was not his wife, the colonists left him alone until it was discovered that he had deserted several wives in Europe and was an agent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who claimed title to the land the Puritans occupied. Forced to leave, Gardiner went to Maine and then to England, where, in 1632, he was one of the leading witnesses before the privy council in Gorges's attempt to have the Massachusetts charter revoked. His career has provided inspiration for a number of literary works, particularly for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's "Rhyme of Sir Christopher" in Tales of a Wayside Inn.
"Gardiner, Sir Christopher." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gardiner-sir-christopher
"Gardiner, Sir Christopher." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gardiner-sir-christopher
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.