Gardiner, German, Bl.

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Layman, last martyr under Henry VIII; d. Tyburn (London), England, March 7, 1544. The Cambridge educated German was secretary to Bp. Stephen Gardiner of Winchester and an able apologist. He wrote a tract against John Frith (Aug. 1, 1534) after which little is heard of his career. He was inspired by the English martyrs who preceded him, especially St. Thomas More. When Henry VIII waivered in his Protestant convictions, Cranmer fell under suspicion and Gardiner was employed to draw up a list of his errors in faith. The king's whim then turned on Gardiner, who was indicted for endeavoring "to deprive the king of his dignity, title, and name of Supreme Head of the English and Irish Church." He was beatified by Pope Leo XIII.

Feast of the English Martyrs: May 4 (England).

See Also: martyrs of england and wales.

Bibliography: b. camm, ed., Lives of the English Martyrs, (New York 1904), I, 54347. r. challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests, ed. j. h. pollen (rev. ed. London 1924; repr. Farnborough 1969). j. h. pollen, Acts of English Martyrs (London 1891).

[k. i. rabenstein]