Bo Xilai, 1949–, Chinese political leader. The son of Bo Yibo, a Communist revolutionary leader, he joined the Communist party in 1980. Bo studied history at Peking Univ. and earned (1982) a master's degree in journalism from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. As mayor of Dalian, Liaoning (1993–2000), he initiated urban renewal projects and the development of a high-tech sector. He then was acting governor (2001–3) and governor (2003–4) of Liaoning, before serving as minister of commerce (2004–7) under Wen Jiabao. As Communist party chief in Chongqing (2007–12), he waged an anticorruption crusade against organized crime. Ambitious and having great personal appeal, he championed populist social and economic policies and a return to traditional Maoist values, eschewing market-based economic reforms.
In Feb., 2012, Chongqing's police chief and vice mayor, Wang Lijun, took refuge in the U.S. consultate, alleging corruption and abuse of power by Bo Xilai's family, which led to Bo's removal from most of his offices, including his politburo and central committee posts, by Apr., 2012. Bo's wife, Gu Kailai, 1958–, was accused of the murder of British businessman Neil Heywood (2011), which had been covered up. A successful lawyer and the daughter of General Gu Jingsheng, a prominent revolutionary, she had been involved with Heywood in business ventures, which had turned sour, and he reportedly threatened to reveal illegal activity by Bo's family. Gu admitted (2012) that she and an accomplice had killed Heywood, and she was given a suspended death sentence. Wang was convicted (2012) of abuse of power, defection, and other crimes. Bo was expelled from the party and later parliament, tried and convicted (2013) of corruption and abuse of power, and sentenced to life in prison.
"Bo Xilai." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bo-xilai
"Bo Xilai." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bo-xilai
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.