Board Games and Toys
Board Games and Toys
Games. At ancient sites in the Near East, archaeologists have excavated board games consisting of playing boards and various objects that were thrown or moved. At Ur the dice were tetrahedrons. Their faces were not marked, but each die had its vertices shaved flat, with two of the four corners decorated or inlaid in some way to make them stand out. When rolled, each die had a fifty-fifty chance of coming up “marked” or “unmarked.” Later dice, probably of Indian origin, have been found at sites throughout Mesopotamia and have been dated to all periods. Made of bone, clay, stone, and even glass, they had the numbers one through six incised on them. Other thrown objects included knucklebones, throw sticks, and stones. Playing pieces came in various shapes, including circles, cones, and pyramids. Texts refer to them as dolls, birds, and dogs.
Twenty-Squares. Played by the rich and the poor, twenty-squares was a racing game for two people using seven black and seven white counters, which were moved according to the roll of the dice. Several twenty-squares boards owned by rich people were found in the Royal Cemetery of Ur (circa 2600 - circa 2500 b.c.e.). Among them was a board inlaid with a mosaic of shell, bone, lapis lazuli,
and red limestone. During the reign of the Assyrian king Sargon II (721–705 b.c.e.), guards of the palace at Khorsa-bad may have passed their time playing the game of twenty-squares on a game board scratched into the pedestal of one of the two bull colossi guarding the gates. Some board games bearing the imprimatur of the Assyrian king Esar-haddon (680–669 b.c.e.) have been found in his palace.
Senet. One of the most popular games found throughout the ancient Near East became known as senet in Egypt. Archaeological evidence of the game has been found at sites dating from prehistoric times through the Hellenistic period. In Egyptian the word senet means “to pass” or “to go by.” The rules have not been discovered. Apparently, two players throwing dice each moved four differently shaped game pieces around the board, which typically had thirty squares, although the number varied.
Other Games. The rules for “Pack of Dogs” have survived. Two lots boards, one connected with the twelve signs of the zodiac, have the rules of the game on their reverse sides. Eighty-four sections were drawn on the ground, and pieces called the eagle, raven, rooster, swallow, and another unidentified bird were moved according to the roll of the dice. This game is still played by women in the Jewish community of Cochin in southern India, where the game is called Asha.
Toys. Some toys were miniatures of the weapons used by adults, such as slingshots, bows and arrows, and boomerangs or throw sticks. Other toys included spinning tops, rattles, jump ropes (sometimes called “the game of Ishtar”), pucks and mallets, and hoops. Like their modern counterparts, Mesopotamian children liked to play “house” or “grown-up,” using dolls and toy animals as well as miniature furniture such as tables, beds, and stools. Model vehicles—including miniature carts, wagons, chariots, and ships—have also been found. It is not clear, however, whether all were toys for children or objects associated with cultic-magical rituals, such as gifts to the gods.
Paul Collins, “Game board and fourteen gaming pieces,” in Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, edited by Joan Aruz with Ronald Wallenfels (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003), p. 101.
Irving J. Finkel, Ancient Board Games (London: Welcome Rain, 1998).
William W. Hallo, “Games in the Biblical World,” in Avraham Malamat Volume, edited by Shmuel Ahituv and Baruch A. Levine, Eretz-Israel Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies, 24 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), pp. 83–88.
Anne D. Kilmer, “Games and Toys in Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Actes du XIIe Congres International des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques, 4 volumes, edited by Juraj Pavúk, Union Internationale des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques (Bratislava: Institut Archéologique de 1’Académic Slovaque des Sciences, 1993), I: 359–364.
Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia, Daily Life through History (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998).
Michael Roaf, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East (New York: Facts on File, 1966).
"Board Games and Toys." World Eras. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/board-games-and-toys
"Board Games and Toys." World Eras. . Retrieved March 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/board-games-and-toys
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.