Skip to main content


Arusha (ərōō´shə), city (1994 est. pop. 140,000), capital of Arusha prov., NE Tanzania. It is an industrial and administrative center, connected by rail with Tanga on the Indian Ocean and with Kenya. Manufactures include textiles, beverages, processed foods, plastics, and electronic equipment. The city was the headquarters of the East African Community (founded 1967) until it was disbanded in 1977; the secretariat of the East African Co-operation, which evolved into a new East African Community by 2000, was established there in 1996. In Jan., 1967, President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania issued the influential Arusha Declaration, which called for socialism, hard work, and self-reliance in Tanzania. Arusha is the site of an institute devoted to research in tropical pesticides.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Arusha." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 20 Mar. 2018 <>.

"Arusha." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (March 20, 2018).

"Arusha." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.