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Annau or Anau (both: ənou´), town, in S Turkmenistan, 5 mi (8 km) SE of Ashgabat, near the Iranian border. At Annau, Raphael Pumpelly discovered (1903) traces of habitation dating back to c.3000 BC The excavations uncovered artifacts indicating cultivation of grain; beautifully designed pottery was also found.

See R. Pumpelly, The Prehistoric Civilization of Anau (1908).