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Ándros (än´thrôs, ăn´drəs), island (1991 pop. 8,781), 146 sq mi (378 sq km), SE Greece, in the Aegean Sea, the northernmost and second largest of the Cyclades. Ándros (1991 pop. 1,370) is the capital and chief town. The island produces silk, wine, and fruit and has manganese deposits. Colonized by Athens in the 5th cent. BC, Ándros rebelled in 410 BC, became a free state, and later passed successively to Macedon, Pergamum, and Rome. Seized (1204) from the Byzantines by Venice and made a principality, it remained almost entirely under Venetian rule until its conquest (1514) by the Turks. In 1829 it passed to Greece.