Schultz-Hencke, Harald Julius Alfred Carl-Ludwig (1892-1953)

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Harald Schultz-Hencke, the German general practitioner, was born in Berlin on August 18, 1892 and died there on May 23, 1953.

His father, Dankmar Carl Sigbert Schultz-Hencke, a physicist and chemist, founded an Institute of Photography (Lette-Verein) in Berlin, where he taught. His mother, Rosalie Adelaïde May Zingler, a graphologist, claimed to be the natural daughter of Edward VII. She died of tuberculosis in 1902. Schultz-Hencke had a sister, Luanna Asträa, a half-sister, Hanna, and a brother, Walter, who was killed during World War I (on May 29, 1915).

In 1911 he began to study: medicine at Fribourgen-Brisgau (doctorate in 1917), philosophy with Heinrich Rickert, Edmund Husserl, and Martin Heidegger, and psychiatry with August Hoche and Ferdinand Kehrer. He volunteered as an army physician in 1914 and in 1915 he joined the Freideutsche Jugend, a German youth organization. Having somewhat mediocre health, he set about perfecting his knowledge of biology (studying fish from the Cichlidae family) and philosophy.

Influenced by Siegfried Bernfeld, he "resolved" to shed light on schizophrenia "with the help of Freud." In 1922 he did his training analysis with Sándor Radó, then trained in the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute (BPI). In 1927-28 he lectured there and created, with Otto Fenichel, the Clinical Seminar for "young analysts" (Kinderseminar). His critiques of metapsychology and libido theory, as well as his relatively active therapeutic methods, resulted in his being forbidden to teach, and made him an "enemy within" for the German Society.

First married to Frieda von Brixen, who suffered from acute nephritis, he left her and, after her death, married one of his patients, Gerda Bally, a Swiss half-Jew and former wife of analyst Gustav Bally. They divorced in 1945. Neither union resulted in any children.

In 1934 he was one of the founding members of the Deutsches Allgemeine Ärtzliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie (General german society for psychotherapeutic medicine) under Matthias H. Göring, and developed "neoanalysis." In 1942-43, though not a member of the NSDAP (the Nazi party), he was chief medical officer to the army, before being freed from this to do therapeutic work in the Göring Institute, founded in 1936.

On May 4, 1945, he founded the Institute for Psychopathology and Psychotherapy (IPP) with Werner Kemper, and became its director. The Institute practiced "neopsychoanalysis" (Neopsychoanalyse ), supposed to be an amalgamation of all psychoanalytic schools, which Schultz-Hencke hadcreated in opposition to classic psychoanalysis. On November 7 of the same year he created the Neopsychoanalytische Vereinigung (Neopsychoanalytic association). The IPP was then transferred to the Zentralinstitut für psychogene Erkrankungen der Versicherungsanstalt Berlin (Berlin social security central institute for psychogenic diseases), which united the social security and retirement authorities under the directorship of Werner Kemper. The Institute for Psychotherapy was then founded on May 9, 1947.

At the sixteenth Congress of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) in August 1949, a controversy broke out, in which Schultz-Hencke found himself in total opposition to Carl Müller-Braunschweig and he refused to resign from the German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) because he was convinced that he enjoyed the support of the "progressive forces" in the IPA. This resulted in Müller-Braunschweig creating the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Vereinigung (DPV, German psychoanalytic association) on June 10, 1950.

Schultz-Hencke's request for a chair of psychotherapy at the Charity was refused because of opposition from the DPG (September 26, 1949) which, in accordance with a directive from the Berlin court, opposed his appointment because the candidate already had financial revenues both in East Berlin (Charity) and West Berlin (director of the Institute for Psychotherapy). A brilliant and much respected professor, he was extremely disappointed by this lack of international recognition for his neopsychoanalysis. But in the GDR his psychoanalysis was the only form recognized until the end of the fifties and the DPG remained under the influence of his teachings until the sixties.

His most outstanding works are: Einführung in die Psychoanalyse (Introduction to psychoanalysis; 1927), Schicksal und Neurose (Fate and neurosis; 1931), Der gehemmte Mensch (The inhibited being; 1940), and Lehrbuch der analytischen Psychotherapie (Treatise on analytical psychotherapy;1951).

Regine Lockot

See also: AllgemeineÄrztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie; Berliner Psychoanalytische Poliklinik; Deutsches Institut für Psychologische Forschung und Psychotherapie ("Institut Göring"); Germany; International Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies; Psyche. Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen ; Psychoanalytic splits.


Kemper, Werner W. (1973). Selbstdarstellung. In L. Pongratz (Ed.), Psychotherapie in Selbstdarstellungen. Bern-Stuttgart: Hans Huber, pp. 259-345.

Schultz-Hencke, Harald. (1972). Einführung in die psychoanalyse. Jena-Göttingen: Fischer-Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. (Original work published 1927)

. (1931). Schicksal und neurose. Jena: S. Fischer.

. (1982). Der gehemmte mensch. Leipzig, Stuttgart: Thieme. (Original work published 1940)

. (1951). Lehrbuch der analytischen psychotherapie. Thieme.

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Schultz-Hencke, Harald Julius Alfred Carl-Ludwig (1892-1953)

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