Skip to main content



Implicit in Wilfred R. Bion's concept of inherent preconceptions is the notion of the future of the preconception in a realization in actual experience with its anticipated counterpart; thus, the infant's inherent preconception of a breast becomes mated with the actual breast that is found and becomes realized as a conception. Repeated confirmatory experiences of that kind eventually confirm the anticipated experience as a concept. Thus, realization, in its capacity to confirm that which has already been autochthonously predicted or expected, bestows confidence, faith, and security to the infant's sense of survival and thriving.

The concept of realization becomes even more ratified when the infant is able to tolerate frustration and thereby allow for the experience of the absence of the breast in the context of having faith in its return. Otherwise, in the case of the infant who cannot tolerate frustration, the experience of the absent breast is eclipsed by the negative experience of the "nobreast present," a concrete image of a bad, persecuting breast.

The concept of realization belongs to Bion's epistemological forays into the fundamental understanding of thinking and is associated with his notions of projective identification, alpha function, and container/contained. The inherent preconception of a breast searches for the realization of the breast in the context of felt neediness if there is an allowance for an absence of a breast that awaits fulfillment and exploratorily and projectively identifies itself in the realized breast. The object of the search who possesses the needed breast is the maternal container who is summoned by the outcry of the infant and his preconception of the breast. The container must appose itself accommodatingly so as to contain the infant's anxiety of non-confirmation (negative realization).

James Grotstein

See also: Catastrophic change; Concept; Container-contained; Invariant; Preconception; Learning from experience .


Bion, W. R. (1962). Learning from experience. London: Heinemann; New York: Basic Books.

. (1962). A theory of thinking. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 43, 4-5; in Second thoughts. London: Heinemann, 1967.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Realization." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . 22 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Realization." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . (February 22, 2019).

"Realization." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Retrieved February 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.