Kibbutz (pl. kibbutzim; Hebrew for "Gathering")
KIBBUTZ (pl. kibbutzim; Hebrew for "gathering")
Jewish collective farm, from which all notions of salary and property are excluded. Originally, the land was rented by the Keren Kayemet le-Yisrael and necessary capital was advanced by the Keren Ha-Yessod. The first kibbutz in Palestine was established in 1910 at Deganya, near Tiberias. In a few years there were twenty-five of them, making the kibbutz the principal element in the Jewish population of Palestine before 1948. Attracting people who were totally imbued with Zionist-Socialist ideals, it played a notable role in the creation of the State of Israel. Traditionally, each kibbutz has been socially and economically autonomous. Yet, kibbutzim commonly belong to movements with political affiliations that provide them with services. Kibbutz members and kibbutzim served as solid role models for Israeli youth. Many kibbutz members became political leaders. Over the years, the kibbutz has diminished in significance, due in part to a growing desire of parents to be the primary socializers of their children, with increased educational aspirations for them, as well as the increased industrialization of the larger Israeli society.
SEE ALSO Keren Kayemet le-Yisrael.