Skip to main content
Select Source:

wings

wings,flight organs of the bird, the bat, and the insect. Birds' wings are pectoral appendages that are basically the same in skeletal structure as the forelimbs of all higher vertebrates, including the human arm. Bird bones are specialized for strength and lightness, and the wing bones are further modified to act as a sturdy anchor for the wing feathers and for the powerful muscles and tendons necessary for flight. The main inner part of the bird's wing is like an airplane wing, concave below and convex above, and supplies lift. The secondary flight feathers also function in lifting; they are attached to a "forearm" bone, the ulna. The ulna locks with a parallel bone, the radius, in flight. The wingtip, or primary, feathers attach to the fused "hand" bones; their circular movement in flight provides the thrust to pull the bird forward. The primaries can be spread and maneuvered to control speed and direction. A mobile "thumb," bearing one or more feathers called alulae that lie along the front edge of the wing, can also be lifted to direct airstreams over the wing when its angle is too great (as in climbing) for the air to flow smoothly around it. There is much variation in the size, shape, and strength of wings and in the number and arrangement of their feathers. Soaring birds, such as the eagle and the pelican, have long, broad wings; in gliding and diving birds, like the gull and the albatross, wings are long and narrow; and in hoverers and darters, like the hummingbird and the swallow, wings are narrow and the primaries especially long to facilitate a rapid, erratic flight. The ostrich's vestigial wings are used for balance in running, and the wings of aquatic birds such as the penguin and the puffin are flipperlike for underwater swimming. The wings of bats are really membranes extending from the "arm," "hand," and "finger" bones to the ankles; the elongated finger bones form a frame to support the folds of skin. Insects' wings are not modified limbs but special lateral outgrowths of the cuticle of the thorax comprising a light membrane strengthened by thick-walled veins. The number, kind, and venation of the wings are bases for classification.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"wings." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"wings." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wings

"wings." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wings

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

wings

wings In biology, specialized organs for flight that are possessed by most birds, many insects, and certain mammals and reptiles. The forelimbs of a bird developed into such structures. Bats have membranous tissue supported by the digits (‘fingers’) of the forelimbs. Insects may have one or two pairs of veined or membranous wings.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"wings." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"wings." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wings

"wings." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wings

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Wings

Wings (wɪŋz) Finance warrants in negotiable government securities

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Wings." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Wings." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/wings

"Wings." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Retrieved August 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/wings

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.