Skip to main content
Select Source:

Graptolithina

Graptolithina (graptolites; phylum Hemichordata) A class of extinct, colonial, marine organisms which secreted a chitinous exoskeleton with characteristic growth bands and lines. The complete skeleton (colony) is referred to as a rhabdo-some. They first appeared in the Middle Cambrian and are last known from the Lower Carboniferous. The class comprises two principal orders: true (graptoloid) graptolites (Graptoloidea), which are important zonal fossils in Ordovician and Silurian rocks; and the dendroid graptolites (Dendroidea).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Graptolithina." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Graptolithina." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graptolithina-0

"Graptolithina." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved February 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graptolithina-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Graptolithina

Graptolithina (graptolites; phylum Hemichordata, subphylum Stomochordata) An extinct class of stick-like, colonial, marine organisms that existed from the Middle Cambrian to the Lower Carboniferous. Their fossils are used to establish a stratigraphical time-scale for the Lower Palaeozoic. There were 2 principal orders, Dendroidea and Graptoloidea, and a number of minor, short-lived orders.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Graptolithina." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Graptolithina." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graptolithina

"Graptolithina." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved February 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/graptolithina

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.