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Chapter 11

Plants belong to the Plantae kingdom. Biologists estimate that there are up to 350,000 species making up this kingdom. In general, there are two types of land-growing plants—vascular and nonvascular. Vascular plants have specially developed organs similar to veins that move liquids through their systems. This category includes the trees, shrubs, flowers, and grasses. Nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. The vast majority of plant species on Earth are vascular plants that reproduce through their flowers.

In science, plants are more often identified by their scientific names than are animals. Plant species are so abundant and diverse that many plants have multiple common names. On the other hand, there are plants that have no common names because they are rare or geographically remote. To avoid confusion, this chapter will include the scientific name for any specific common name given.

Many factors contribute to the endangerment of plant species. Numerous species are the victims of habitat loss due to land and agricultural development. Others have declined due to pollution or habitat damage, or as a result of competition with invasive species. Still others have succumbed to introduced or unknown plant diseases. Finally, collectors or dealers often illegally seek rare, showy, or unusual plants, and have depleted populations through over-collection.

The preservation of plant species is important for many reasons. Not only are plants of aesthetic value, they are crucial components of every ecosystem on earth. Plants also serve several functions directly beneficial to humans. First, they provide genetic variation that is used in the breeding of new crop varieties—native plants provide genes that allow for adaptation to local environments, as well as resistance to pests, disease, or drought. In addition, plants are the source of numerous human medicines.


During the 1800s the American chestnut (Castanea dentate) was the predominant tree of many forests in the eastern United States. Its range extended from Maine to Mississippi, as shown in Figure 11.1. The heaviest concentrations were in the southern Appalachian Mountains where the tree made up more than a third of the overstory trees (the topmost layer of foliage in a forest). Mature trees reached three to five feet in diameter and rose to ninety feet in height with a huge canopy. The species was fast-growing and produced light, durable wood that was extremely popular for firewood and for making furniture, shingles, caskets, telephone poles, railroad ties, and other products. The trees were also valued for their chestnuts and tannin content. Tannin is an extract used in the leather industry.

In 1904 observers in New York City reported that an unknown blight (disease) was killing American chestnut trees at the Bronx Zoo. By 1940 the blight had spread through the entire range of the species, leaving all of the trees dead or dying. The tree structure was not damaged by the disease, so harvesting continued of dead trees for several more decades. Although sprouts would grow from the stumps left behind, they eventually succumbed to the blight. By the 1970s the American chestnut had been virtually eliminated. More than three billion trees had been killed. The culprit was a fungus originally called Endothia parasitica, but later renamed Cryphonectria parasitica. Scientists believe the disease came into the United States with ornamental chestnut trees imported from Japan or China. The Asian trees could carry the disease, but not succumb to it, because of natural immunity.

During the 1920s frantic efforts began to cross the remaining American chestnut trees with the Asiatic species. Although hybrid trees resulted with some resistance to the blight, they were inferior in quality to the original American species. Advances in genetic research and forestry techniques led to better hybrids by the 1980s. As of 2006 research continues by two foundations—the American Chestnut Foundation (a nonprofit organization headquartered in Vermont) and the American Chestnut Cooperators' Foundation (ACCF) at Virginia Tech University. The American Chestnut Foundation focuses on crossing naturally blight-resistant Asiatic species with American species. The ACCF produces crosses between American chestnut trees found to have some resistance to the blight in hopes of eventually producing offspring with higher resistance. Both organizations are confident that vigorous blight-resistant American chestnut trees can be developed during the twenty-first century.


The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) protects listed plants from deliberate destruction or vandalism. Plants also receive protection under the consultation requirements of the act—that is, all federal agencies must consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to determine how best to conserve species as well as to ensure that no issued permits will jeopardize listed species or harm their habitats.

However, many conservationists believe that plants receive less protection than animals under the Endangered Species Act. First, the ESA only protects plants that are found on federal lands. It imposes no restrictions on private landowners whose property is home to endangered plants. Critics also complain that the Fish and Wildlife Service has been slow to list plant species and that damage to plant habitats is not addressed with the same seriousness as for animal species. However, the agency points out that the number of plants listed under the ESA has risen dramatically over the past two decades, as shown in Figure 11.2.

In 2000, in an effort to bolster conservation efforts for plants, the FWS formed an agreement with the Center for Plant Conservation, a national association of botanical gardens and arboreta. The two organizations are cooperating in developing conservation measures to help save North American plant species, particularly those listed as threatened or endangered. Central to the effort is the creation of educational programs aimed at informing the public about the importance of plant species for aesthetic, economic, biological, and medical reasons. The Center for Plant Conservation also aids in developing recovery plans for listed plant species.


Table 11.1 shows the 745 U.S. plant species listed under the Endangered Species Act as of March 2006. The vast majority of the plants (80%) have endangered status, while the other 20% are threatened. Nearly all of the plants have recovery plans in place. Because several species of imperiled plants are often found in the same ecosystem, many recovery plans cover multiple plant species.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses four broad categories for plant types—conifers and cycads, ferns and allies, lichens, and flowering plants. A breakdown of listings by type is as follows:

  • Conifers and cycads—three species
  • Ferns and allies—twenty-six species
  • Lichens—two species
  • Flowering plants—714 species

Because the status of most plant species has not been studied in detail, many more plants are probably in danger of extinction than appear on these lists.

Just over $21 million was spent under the Endangered Species Act on threatened and endangered plants during fiscal year 2004. The ten plants with the highest expenditures are listed in Table 11.2. Flowering plants accounted for 97% of the total expenditures. Although plants comprise a slight majority of the total number of species listed under the ESA, they receive far less funding than animal species. Expenditures for plant species during fiscal year 2004 amounted to less than 2% of the total $1.4 billion spent that year.


Taxonomy of plant species can be very complicated and is plagued by disagreements among scientists. Historically, plants were categorized by morphology—physical characteristics, such as shape or color of their leaves, fruit, bark, etc. During the 1960s a new classification scheme emerged that groups plants based on their evolutionary similarities—for example, their chemical properties and reproductive mechanisms. This taxonomy is part of the broader science known as phylogenetic systematics, which studies the evolutionary relationships between living organisms. In the future the systematics approach is expected to be used to classify all life forms.

In general, plants are assigned to the same taxonomic levels used to classify animals. This hierarchical structure includes kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Beneath the species level, plants can be classified as to subspecies, just as in animal taxonomy. There is an additional classification for plants at this level called variety (abbreviated as "var."). Varieties are subgroups with unique differences between them. For example, the invasive species known as kudzu has the scientific name Pueraria montana. There are two varieties—Pueraria montana var. lobata and Pueraria montana var. montana. The lobata variety is commonly found in the United States, while the montana variety is not. Note that variety names are not italicized.

Plant taxonomy also includes additional taxa (groups) between kingdom and phylum called subkingdom, superdivision, and division that distinguish between broad categories of plants. The subkingdom level distinguishes between vascular and nonvascular plants. Within vascular plants, there are two superdivisions—seed plants and seedless plants. Seed plants are divided into various divisions, the largest of which is flowering plants.

The categories used by the FWS in Table 11.1 to categorize endangered and threatened plants are division levels or similar groupings.

Conifers and Cycads

Conifers are cone-bearing, woody plants. Most are trees; only a few species are shrubs. Common tree types include pine, cedar, fir, spruce, redwood, and cypress. As shown in Table 11.1, there are only two conifers listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Santa Cruz cypress (Cupressus abramsiana) and gowen cypress (Cupressus goveniana) are found only in Southern California. Both species are imperiled because they have

TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Conifers & cycads
Cupressus abramsianaCypress, Santa CruzE9/26/98F
Cupressus goveniana ssp. govenianaCypress, gowenT12/20/04F
Torreya taxifoliaTorreya, FloridaE9/9/86F
Ferns & allies
Adenophorus periensFern, pendant kihiE7/10/99F
Adiantum vivesiiNo common nameE1/17/95F
Asplenium fragile var. insulareNo common nameE4/10/98F
Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanumFern, American hart's-tongueT9/15/93F
Ctenitis squamigeraPauoaE4/10/98F
Cyathea dryopteroidesFern, elfin treeE1/31/91F
Diellia erectaDiellia, asplenium-leavedE7/10/99F
Diellia falcataNo common nameE8/12/95F
Diellia pallidaNo common nameE9/20/95F
Diellia unisoraNo common nameE8/12/95F
Diplazium molokaienseNo common nameE4/10/98F
Elaphoglossum serpensNo common nameE1/17/95F
Huperzia manniiWawaˋeioleE7/29/97F
Isoetes louisianensisQuillwort, LouisianaE9/30/96F
Isoetes melanosporaQuillwort, black sporedE7/7/93F
Isoetes tegetiformansQuillwort, mat-formingE7/7/93F
Lycopodium (=phlegmariurus) nutansWawaeìoleE8/10/98F
Marsilea villosaIhiˋihiE4/18/96F
Polystichum aleuticumFern, Aleutian shieldE9/30/92F
Polystichum calderonenseNo common nameE1/17/95F
Pteris lidgateiNo common nameE4/10/98F
Tectaria estremeranaNo common nameE1/17/95F
Thelypteris inabonensisNo common nameE1/17/95F
Thelypteris pilosa var. alabamensisFern, Alabama streak-sorusT10/25/96F
Thelypteris verecundaNo common nameE1/17/95F
Thelypteris yaucoensisNo common nameE1/17/95F
Cladonia perforataCladonia, Florida perforateE5/18/99F
Gymnoderma lineareLichen, rock gnomeE9/30/97F
Flowering plants
Abronia macrocarpaSand-verbena, large-fruitedE9/30/92F
Abutilon eremitopetalumNo common nameE9/29/95F
Abutilon menziesiiKoˋoloaˋulaE9/29/95F
Abutilon sandwicenseNo common nameE8/12/95F
Acaena exiguaLiliwaiE7/29/97F
Acanthomintha ilicifoliaThornmint, San DiegoTNone
Acanthomintha obovata ssp. duttoniiThornmint, San MateoE9/30/98F
Achyranthes muticaNo common nameE7/10/99F
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundataChaff-flower, round-leavedE10/5/93D
Aconitum noveboracenseMonkshood, northern wildT9/23/83F
Aeschynomene virginicaJoint-vetch, sensitiveT9/29/95F
Agalinis acutaGerardia, sandplainE9/20/89F
Agave arizonicaAgave, ArizonaENone
Alectryon macrococcusMahoeE7/29/97F
Allium munziiOnion, Munz'sENone
Alopecurus aequalis var. sonomensisAlopecurus, SonomaENone
Alsinidendron lychnoidesKuawawaenohuE8/23/98F
Alsinidendron obovatumNo common nameE8/12/95F
Alsinidendron trinerveNo common nameE8/12/95F
Alsinidendron viscosumNo common nameE8/23/98F
Amaranthus browniiNo common nameE3/31/98F
Amaranthus pumilusAmaranth, seabeachT11/12/96F
Ambrosia cheiranthifoliaAmbrosia, south TexasENone
Ambrosia pumilaAmbrosia, San DiegoENone
Amorpha crenulataLead-plant, CrenulateE5/18/99F
Amphianthus pusillusAmphianthus, littleT7/7/93F
Amsinckia grandifloraFiddleneck, large-floweredE9/29/97F
Amsonia kearneyanaBlue-star, Kearney'sE5/24/93F
Ancistrocactus tobuschiiCactus, Tobusch fishhookE3/18/87F
Apios priceanaPotato-bean, Price'sT2/10/93F
Arabis hoffmanniiRock-cress, Hoffmann'sE9/26/2000F
Arabis mcdonaldianaRock-cress, McDonald'sE2/28/84F
Arabis perstellataRock-cress, Braun'sE7/22/97F
Arabis serotinaRock-cress, shale barrenE8/15/91F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened species in the United States, March 2006 [contionued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Arctomecon humilisBear-poppy, dwarfE12/31/85F
Arctostaphylos confertifloraManzanita, Santa Rosa IslandE9/26/2000F
Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifoliaManzanita, Del MarENone
Arctostaphylos hookeri var. raveniiManzanita, PresidioE10/6/03F
Arctostaphylos morroensisManzanita, MorroT9/28/98F
Arctostaphylos myrtifoliaManzanita, IoneTNone
Arctostaphylos pallidaManzanita, pallidT4/7/03D
Arenaria cumberlandensisSandwort, CumberlandE6/20/96F
Arenaria paludicolaSandwort, MarshE9/28/98F
Arenaria ursinaSandwort, Bear ValleyTNone
Argemone pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisectaPoppy, Sacramento pricklyE8/31/94F
Argyroxiphium kauenseSilversword, Mauna Loa (=Kaˋu)E11/21/95F
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalumˋAhinahinaT7/29/97F
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicenseˋAhinahinaE9/30/93F
Aristida chaseaeNo common nameE7/31/95F
Aristida portoricensisPelos del diabloE5/16/94F
Asclepias meadiiMilkweed, Mead'sT9/22/03F
Asclepias welshiiMilkweed, Welsh'sT9/30/92F
Asimina tetrameraPawpaw, four-petalE5/18/99F
Astragalus albensMilk-vetch, CushenburyE9/30/97D
Astragalus ampullarioidesMilk-vetch, ShivwitzENone
Astragalus applegateiMilk-vetch, Applegate'sE4/10/98F
Astragalus bibullatusGround-plum, Guthrie's (=Pyne's)ENone
Astragalus brauntoniiMilk-vetch, Braunton'sE9/30/99F
Astragalus clarianusMilk-vetch, Clara Hunt'sENone
Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylaxMilk-vetch, SentryE9/14/04D
Astragalus desereticusMilk-vetch, DeseretTNone
Astragalus holmgreniorumMilk-vetch, HolmgrenENone
Astragalus humillimusMilk-vetch, MancosE12/20/89F
Astragalus jaegerianusMilk-vetch, Lane MountainENone
Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellaeMilk-vetch, Coachella ValleyENone
Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensisMilk-vetch, Fish SloughT9/30/98F
Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsoniiMilk-vetch, Peirson'sTNone
Astragalus montiiMilk-vetch, heliotropeT9/27/95D
Astragalus osterhoutiiMilk-vetch, OsterhoutE9/30/92F
Astragalus phoenixMilk-vetch, Ash meadowsT9/28/90F
Astragalus pycnostachyus var. lanosissimusMilk-vetch, Ventura MarshENone
Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupiMilk-vetch, Jesup'sE11/21/89F
Astragalus tener var. titiMilk-vetch, coastal dunesE12/20/04F
Astragalus tricarinatusMilk-vetch, triple-ribbedENone
Astrophytum asteriasCactus, starE11/6/03F
Atriplex coronata var. notatiorCrownscale, San Jacinto ValleyENone
Auerodendron pauciflorumNo common nameE9/29/97F
Ayenia limitarisAyenia, TexasENone
Baccharis vanessaeBaccharis, EncinitasTNone
Banara vanderbiltiiPalo de ramonE3/15/91F
Baptisia arachniferaRattleweed, hairyE3/19/84F
Berberis neviniiBarberry, Nevin'sENone
Berberis pinnata ssp. insularisBarberry, islandE9/26/2000F
Betula uberBirch, Virginia round-leafT9/24/90RF(2)
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealahaKoˋokoˋolauE7/29/97F
Bidens wiebkeiKoˋokoˋolauE9/26/96F
Blennosperma bakeriSunshine, SonomaENone
Boltonia decurrensAster, decurrent falseT9/28/90F
Bonamia grandifloraBonamia, FloridaT6/20/96RF(1)
Bonamia menziesiiNo common nameE7/10/99F
Brighamia insignisOluluE9/20/95F
Brighamia rockiiPuaˋalaE9/26/96F
Brodiaea filifoliaBrodiaea, thread-leavedTNone
Brodiaea pallidaBrodiaea, Chinese CampT9/16/05U
Buxus vahliiBoxwood, Vahl'sE4/28/87F
Caesalpinia kavaienseUhiuhiE5/6/94F
Callicarpa amplaCapa rosaE7/31/95F
Callirhoe scabriusculaPoppy-mallow, TexasE3/29/85F
Calochortus tiburonensisMariposa lily, TiburonT9/30/98F
Calyptranthes thomasianaNo common nameE9/30/97F
Calyptridium pulchellumPussypaws, MariposaT9/16/05U
Calyptronoma rivalisManaca, palma deT6/25/92F
Calystegia stebbinsiiMorning-glory, Stebbins'E8/30/02F
Camissonia benitensisEvening-primrose, San BenitoT2/2/99D
Campanula robinsiaeBellflower, BrooksvilleE6/20/94F
Canavalia molokaiensisˋAwikiwikiE9/26/96F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened species in the United States, March 2006 [contionued ]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Cardamine micrantheraBittercress, small-antheredE7/10/91F
Carex albidaSedge, whiteENone
Carex luteaSedge, goldenENone
Carex specuicolaSedge, NavajoT9/24/87F
Castilleja affinis ssp. neglectaPaintbrush, TiburonE9/30/98F
Castilleja campestris ssp. succulentaOwl's-clover, fleshyT3/7/06F
Castilleja cinereaPaintbrush, ash-greyTNone
Castilleja griseaIndian paintbrush, San Clemente IslandE1/26/84F
Castilleja levisectaPaintbrush, goldenT8/23/2000F
Castilleja mollisPaintbrush, soft-leavedE9/26/2000F
Catesbaea melanocarpaNo common nameE8/18/05F
Caulanthus californicusJewelflower, CaliforniaE9/30/98F
Ceanothus ferrisaeCeanothus, coyoteE9/30/98F
Ceanothus ophiochilusCeanothus, Vail LakeTNone
Ceanothus roderickiiCeanothus, Pine HillE8/30/02F
Cenchrus agrimonioidesKamanomanoE7/10/99F
Centaurium namophilumCentaury, spring-lovingT9/28/90F
Centaurium sebaeoidesAwiwiE8/12/95F
Cercocarpus traskiaeMountain-mahogany, Catalina IslandE9/16/05U
Cereus eriophorus var. fragransPrickly-apple, fragrantE5/18/99F
Chamaecrista glandulosa var. mirabilisNo common nameE5/12/94F
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenanaˋAkokoE8/12/95F
Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. deltoideaSpurge, deltoidE5/18/99F
Chamaesyce deppeanaˋAkokoE8/10/98F
Chamaesyce garberiSpurge, Garber'sT5/18/99F
Chamaesyce halemanuiNo common nameE9/20/95F
Chamaesyce herbstiiˋAkokoE8/10/98F
Chamaesyce hooveriSpurge, Hoover'sT3/7/06F
Chamaesyce kuwaleanaˋAkokoE8/12/95F
Chamaesyce rockiiˋAkokoE8/10/98F
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloanaˋAkoko, Ewa PlainsE10/5/93D
Chionanthus pygmaeusFringe-tree, pygmyE5/18/99F
Chlorogalum purpureumAmole, purpleTNone
Chorizanthe howelliiSpineflower, Howell'sE9/29/98F
Chorizanthe orcuttianaSpineflower, Orcutt'sENone
Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegianaSpineflower, Ben LomondE9/28/98F
Chorizanthe pungens var. pungensSpineflower, MontereyT9/29/98F
Chorizanthe robusta (incl. vars. robusta and hartwegii)Spineflower, Robust (incl. Scotts Valley)E9/28/98F
Chorizanthe validaSpineflower, SonomaE9/29/98F
Chrysopsis floridanaAster, Florida goldenE8/29/88F
Cirsium fontinale var. fontinaleThistle, fountainE9/30/98F
Cirsium fontinale var. obispoenseThistle, Chorro Creek bogE9/28/98F
Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilumThistle, SuisunENone
Cirsium loncholepisThistle, La GraciosaENone
Cirsium pitcheriThistle, Pitcher'sT9/20/02F
Cirsium vinaceumThistle, Sacramento MountainsT9/27/93F
Clarkia franciscanaClarkia, PresidioE9/30/98F
Clarkia imbricataClarkia, Vine HillENone
Clarkia speciosa ssp. immaculataClarkia, PismoE9/28/98F
Clarkia springvillensisClarkia, SpringvilleT9/16/05U
Clematis morefieldiiLeather flower, Morefield'sE5/3/94F
Clematis socialisLeather flower, AlabamaE12/27/89F
Clermontia drepanomorphaˋOha waiE5/11/98F
Clermontia lindseyanaˋOha waiE9/26/96F
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipesˋOha waiE9/26/96F
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensisˋOha waiE7/29/97F
Clermontia peleanaˋOha waiE9/26/96F
Clermontia pyrulariaˋOha waiE9/26/96F
Clermontia samueliiˋOha waiE9/19/02F
Clitoria fragransPigeon wingsT5/18/99F
Colubrina oppositifoliaKauilaE9/26/96F
Conradina brevifoliaRosemary, short-leavedE5/18/99F
Conradina etoniaRosemary, EtoniaE9/27/94F
Conradina glabraRosemary, ApalachicolaE9/27/94F
Conradina verticillataRosemary, CumberlandT7/12/96F
Cordia bellonisNo common nameE10/1/99F
Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimusBird's-beak, salt marshE12/6/85F
Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollisBird's-beak, softENone
Cordylanthus palmatusBird's beak, palmate-bractedE9/30/98F
Cordylanthus tenuis ssp. capillarisBird's-beak, Pennell'sE9/30/98F
Cornutia obovataPalo de niguaE8/7/92F
Coryphantha minimaCactus, Nellie coryE9/20/84F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Coryphantha ramillosaCory cactus, bunchedT4/13/90U
Coryphantha robbinsorumCactus, Cochise pincushionT9/27/93F
Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispinaCactus, Pima pineappleE9/26/05U
Coryphantha sneedii var. leeiCactus, Lee pincushionT3/21/86F
Coryphantha sneedii var. sneediiCactus, Sneed pincushionE3/21/86F
Cranichis ricartiiNo common nameE7/15/96F
Crescentia portoricensisHiguero de sierraE9/23/91F
Crotalaria avonensisHarebells, Avon ParkE5/18/99F
Cryptantha crassipesCat's-eye, Terlingua CreekE4/5/94F
Cucurbita okeechobeensis ssp. okeechobeensisGourd, OkeechobeeE5/18/99F
Cyanea (=rollandia) crispaNo common nameE8/10/98F
Cyanea acuminataHahaE8/10/98F
Cyanea asarifoliaHahaE9/20/95F
Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandiiHahaE9/26/96F
Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensisHahaE9/19/02F
Cyanea dunbariiHahaE5/20/98F
Cyanea glabraHahaE9/19/02F
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesianaHahaE7/10/99F
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obataeHahaE8/12/95F
Cyanea hamatiflora carlsoniiHahaE9/26/96F
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatifloraHahaE9/19/02F
Cyanea humboldtianaHahaE8/10/98F
Cyanea koolauensisHahaE8/10/98F
Cyanea lobataHahaE7/29/97F
Cyanea longifloraHahaE8/10/98F
Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsoniiHahaE9/29/95F
Cyanea manniiHahaE9/26/96F
Cyanea mceldowneyiHahaE7/29/97F
Cyanea pinnatifidaHahaE8/12/95F
Cyanea platyphyllaHahaE5/11/98F
Cyanea proceraHahaE9/26/96F
Cyanea rectaHahaT8/23/98F
Cyanea remyiHahaE8/23/98F
Cyanea shipmanniiHahaE9/26/96F
Cyanea stictophyllaHahaE9/26/96F
Cyanea st-johniiHahaE8/10/98F
Cyanea superbaHahaE8/12/95F
Cyanea truncataHahaE8/10/98F
Cyanea undulataHahaE5/31/94F
Cycladenia jonesii (=humilis)Cycladenia, JonesTNone
Cyperus trachysanthosPuˋukaˋaE7/10/99F
Cyrtandra crenataHaìwaleE8/10/98F
Cyrtandra cyaneoidesMapeleE8/23/98F
Cyrtandra dentataHaˋiwaleE8/10/98F
Cyrtandra giffardiiHaˋiwaleE9/26/96F
Cyrtandra limahuliensisHaˋiwaleT9/20/95F
Cyrtandra munroiHaˋiwaleE9/29/95F
Cyrtandra polyanthaHaˋiwaleE8/10/98F
Cyrtandra subumbellataHaˋiwaleE8/10/98F
Cyrtandra tintinnabulaHaˋiwaleE9/26/96F
Cyrtandra viridifloraHaˋiwaleE8/10/98F
Dalea foliosaPrairie-clover, leafyE9/30/96F
Daphnopsis helleranaNo common nameE8/7/92F
Deeringothamnus pulchellusPawpaw, beautifulE5/18/99F
Deeringothamnus rugeliiPawpaw, Rugel'sE4/5/88F
Deinandra (=hemizonia) conjugensTarplant, OtayT12/28/04F
Deinandra increscens ssp. villosaTarplant, GaviotaENone
Delissea rhytidospermaNo common nameE9/20/95F
Delissea rivularisOhaE8/23/98F
Delissea subcordataOhaE8/10/98F
Delissea undulataNo common nameE9/26/96F
Delphinium bakeriLarkspur, Baker'sENone
Delphinium luteumLarkspur, yellowENone
Delphinium variegatum ssp. kinkienseLarkspur, San Clemente IslandE1/26/84F
Dicerandra christmaniiMint, Garrett'sE5/18/99F
Dicerandra cornutissimaMint, longspurredE7/1/87F
Dicerandra frutescensMint, scrubE5/18/99F
Dicerandra immaculataMint, Lakela'sE5/18/99F
Dodecahema leptocerasSpineflower, slender-hornedENone
Dubautia herbstobataeNaˋenaˋeE8/12/95F
Dubautia latifoliaNaˋenaˋeE9/20/95F
Dubautia pauciflorulaNaˋenaˋeE5/31/94F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilisNaènaèE9/19/02F
Dudleya abramsii ssp. parvaDudleya, ConejoT9/30/99F
Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescensDudleya, marcescentT9/30/99F
Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifoliaDudleyea, Santa Monica MountainsT9/30/99F
Dudleya nesioticaDudleya, Santa Cruz IslandT9/26/2000F
Dudleya setchelliiDudleya, Santa Clara ValleyE9/30/98F
Dudleya stoloniferaLiveforever, Laguna BeachTNone
Dudleya traskiaeLiveforever, Santa Barbara IslandE6/27/85F
Dudleya verityiDudleya, Verity'sT9/30/99F
Echinacea laevigataConeflower, smoothE4/18/95F
Echinacea tennesseensisConeflower, Tennessee purpleE11/14/89RF(1)
Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholiiCactus, Nichol's Turk's headE4/14/86F
Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensisCactus, Chisos Mountain hedgehogT12/8/93F
Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleriCactus, Kuenzler hedgehogE3/28/85F
Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertiiCactus, black laceE3/18/87F
Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicusCactus, Arizona hedgehogE9/30/84TD
Echinocereus viridiflorus var. davisiiPitaya, Davis' greenE9/20/84F
Echinomastus mariposensisCactus, Lloyd's MariposaT4/13/90F
Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugataSunray, Ash MeadowsT9/28/90F
Eragrostis fosbergiiLove grass, Fosberg'sE8/10/98F
Eremalche kernensisMallow, KernE9/30/98F
Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorumWoolly-star, Santa Ana RiverENone
Erigeron decumbens var. decumbensDaisy, WillametteE9/16/05U
Erigeron maguireiDaisy, MaguireT8/15/95F
Erigeron parishiiDaisy, Parish'sT9/30/97D
Erigeron rhizomatusFleabane, ZuniT9/30/88F
Eriodictyon altissimumMountain balm, Indian KnobE9/28/98F
Eriodictyon capitatumYerba santa, LompocENone
Eriogonum apricum (including var. prostratum)Buckwheat, Ione (incl. Irish Hill)ENone
Eriogonum gypsophilumWild-buckwheat, gypsumT3/30/84F
Eriogonum kennedyi var. austromontanumWild-buckwheat, southern mountainTNone
Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifoliumBuckwheat, scrubT6/20/96RF(1)
Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineumBuckwheat, cushenburyE9/30/97D
Eriogonum ovalifolium var. williamsiaeBuckwheat, steamboatE9/20/95F
Eriogonum pelinophilumWild-buckwheat, clay-lovingE11/10/88F
Eriophyllum latilobumSunflower, San Mateo woollyE9/30/98F
Eryngium aristulatum var. parishiiButton-celery, San DiegoE9/3/98F
Eryngium constanceiThistle, Loch Lomond coyoteE3/7/06F
Eryngium cuneifoliumSnakerootE5/18/99F
Erysimum capitatum var. angustatumWallflower, Contra CostaE4/25/84RF(1)
Erysimum menziesiiWallflower, Menzies'E9/29/98F
Erysimum teretifoliumWallflower, Ben LomondE9/28/98F
Erythronium propullansLily, Minnesota dwarf troutE12/16/87F
Eugenia haematocarpaUvilloE9/11/98F
Eugenia koolauensisNioiE8/10/98F
Eugenia woodburyanaNo common nameE10/6/98F
Euphorbia haeleeleanaˋAkokoE7/10/99F
Euphorbia telephioidesSpurge, telephusT6/22/94F
Eutrema penlandiiMustard, Penland alpine fenTNone
Exocarpos luteolusHeauE9/20/95F
Flueggea neowawraeaMehamehameE7/10/99F
Frankenia johnstoniiFrankenia, Johnston'sE5/24/88F
Fremontodendron californicum ssp. decumbensFlannelbush, Pine HillE8/30/02F
Fremontodendron mexicanumFlannelbush, MexicanENone
Fritillaria gentneriFritillary, Gentner'sE8/28/03F
Gahnia lanaiensisNo common nameE9/29/95F
Galactia smalliiMilkpea, Small'sE5/18/99F
Galium buxifoliumBedstraw, islandE9/26/2000F
Galium californicum ssp. sierraeBedstraw, El DoradoE8/30/02F
Gardenia brighamiiGardenia (=Naˋu), HawaiianE9/30/93F
Gardenia manniiNanuE8/10/98F
Gaura neomexicana var. coloradensisButterfly plant, ColoradoTNone
Geocarpon minimumNo common nameT7/26/93F
Geranium arboreumGeranium, Hawaiian red-floweredE7/29/97F
Geranium multiflorumNohoanuE7/29/97F
Gesneria paucifloraNo common nameT10/6/98F
Geum radiatumAvens, spreadingE4/28/93F
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenariaGilia, MontereyE9/29/98F
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. hoffmanniiGilia, Hoffmann's slender-floweredE9/26/2000F
Goetzea elegansGoetzea, beautifulE4/28/87F
Gouania hillebrandiiNo common nameE7/16/90F
Gouania meyeniiNo common nameE8/12/95F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Gouania vitifoliaNo common nameE8/12/95F
Grindelia fraxino-pratensisGumplant, Ash MeadowsT9/28/90F
Hackelia venustaStickseed, showyE9/21/05U
Halophila johnsoniiSeagrass, Johnson'sT10/4/02F
Haplostachys haplostachyaHonohonoE9/20/93D
Harperocallis flavaBeauty, Harper'sE9/14/83F
Harrisia portoricensisChumbo, HigoT11/12/96F
Hedeoma todseniiPennyroyal, Todsen'sE1/31/01RF(2)
Hedyotis cookianaAwiwiE9/20/95F
Hedyotis coriaceaKioˋeleE7/29/97F
Hedyotis degeneriNo common nameE8/12/95F
Hedyotis manniiPiloE9/26/96F
Hedyotis parvulaNo common nameE8/12/95F
Hedyotis purpurea var. montanaBluet, Roan MountainE5/13/96F
Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyiKopaE9/19/02F
Hedyotis st.-johniiHedyotis, Na Pali beachE9/20/95F
Helenium virginicumSneezeweed, VirginiaT10/2/2000D
Helianthemum greeneiRush-rose, islandT9/26/2000F
Helianthus paradoxusSunflower, Pecos (=puzzle, =paradox)T9/15/05F
Helianthus schweinitziiSunflower, Schweinitz'sE4/22/94F
Helonias bullataPink, swampT9/30/91F
Hesperolinon congestumDwarf-flax, MarinT9/30/98F
Hesperomannia arborescensNo common nameE8/10/98F
Hesperomannia arbusculaNo common nameE8/12/95F
Hesperomannia lydgateiNo common nameE5/31/94F
Hexastylis nanifloraHeartleaf, dwarf-floweredTnullU
Hibiscadelphus distansKauai hau kuahiwiE6/5/96F
Hibiscadelphus giffardianusHau kuahiwiE5/11/98F
Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensisHau kuahiwiE5/11/|98F
Hibiscadelphus woodiiHau kuahiwiE8/23/98F
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatusKokiˋo keˋokeˋoE9/26/96F
Hibiscus brackenridgeiMaˋo hau hele, (=native yellow hibiscus)E7/10/99F
Hibiscus clayiHibiscus, Clay'sE9/20/95F
Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hanneraeKokiò keòkeòE8/23/98F
Hoffmannseggia tenellaRush-pea, slenderE9/13/88F
Holocarpha macradeniaTarplant, Santa CruzTNone
Howellia aquatilisHowellia, waterT9/2496D
Hudsonia montanaHeather, mountain goldenT9/14/83F
Hymenoxys herbaceaDaisy, lakesideT9/19/90F
Hymenoxys texanaDawn-flower, Texas prairieE4/13/90F
Hypericum cumulicolaHypericum, highlands scrubE5/18/99F
Ilex cookiiHolly, Cook'sE1/31/91F
Ilex sintenisiiNo common nameE7/31/95F
Iliamna coreiMallow, Peter's MountainE9/28/90F
Ipomopsis sancti-spiritusIpomopsis, Holy GhostE9/26/02F
Iris lacustrisIris, dwarf lakeTNone
Ischaemum byroneIschaemum, HiloE9/26/96F
Isodendrion hosakaeAupakaE5/23/94F
Isodendrion laurifoliumAupakaE7/10/99F
Isodendrion longifoliumAupakaT7/10/99F
Isodendrion pyrifoliumKula wahine nohoE9/26/96F
Isotria medeoloidesPogonia, small whorledT11/13/92RF(1)
Ivesia kingii var. eremicaIvesia, Ash MeadowsT9/28/90F
Jacquemontia reclinataJacquemontia, beachE5/18/99F
Juglans jamaicensisWalnut (=Nogal), West IndianE12/9/99F
Justicia cooleyiWater-willow, Cooley'sE6/20/94F
Kanaloa kahoolawensisKohe malama malama o kanaloaE9/1902F
Kokia cookeiKokiˋo, Cooke'sE5/27/98F
Kokia drynarioidesKokiˋoE5/6/94F
Kokia kauaiensisKokiˋoE8/23/98F
Labordia cyrtandraeKamakahalaE8/10/98F
Labordia lydgateiKamakahalaE5/31/94F
Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensisKamakahalaE9/19/02F
Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensisKamakahalaE8/23/98F
Labordia trifloraKamakahalaE9/19/02F
Lasthenia burkeiGoldfields, Burke'sENone
Lasthenia conjugensGoldfields, Contra CostaE3/7/06F
Layia carnosaLayia, beachE9/29/98F
Lepanthes eltoroensisNo common nameE7/15/96F
Lepidium arbusculaˋAnaunauE8/10/98F
Lepidium barnebyanumRidge-cress, BarnebyE7/23/93F
Leptocereus grantianusNo common nameE7/26/95F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Lespedeza leptostachyaBush-clover, prairieT10/6/88F
Lesquerella congestaBladderpod, Dudley BluffsT8/13/93F
Lesquerella filiformisBladderpod, MissouriT4/7/88F
Lesquerella kingii ssp. bernardinaBladderpod, San Bernardino MountainsE9/30/97D
Lesquerella lyrataBladderpod, lyrateT10/17/96F
Lesquerella pallidaBladderpod, whiteE10/16/92F
Lesquerella perforataBladderpod, Spring CreekE9/12/05D
Lesquerella thamnophilaBladderpod, ZapataE8/25/04F
Lesquerella tumulosaBladderpod, kodachromeENone
Lessingia germanorum (=l.g. var. germanorum)Lessingia, San FranciscoE10/6/03F
Liatris helleriBlazingstar, Heller'sT1/28/2000RF(1)
Liatris ohlingeraeBlazingstar, scrubE5/18/99F
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurvaWater-umbel, HuachucaENone
Lilium occidentaleLily, WesternE3/31/98F
Lilium pardalinum ssp. pitkinenseLily, Pitkin MarshENone
Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californicaMeadowfoam, Butte CountyE3/7/06F
Limnanthes floccosa ssp. grandifloraMeadowfoam, large-flowered woollyE9/21/05U
Limnanthes vinculansMeadowfoam, SebastopolENone
Lindera melissifoliaPondberryE9/23/93F
Lipochaeta faurieiNeheE9/20/95F
Lipochaeta kamolensisNeheE7/29/97F
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophyllaNeheE8/12/95F
Lipochaeta micranthaNeheE9/20/95F
Lipochaeta tenuifoliaNeheE8/12/95F
Lipochaeta venosaNo common nameE5/23/94F
Lipochaeta waimeaensisNeheE9/20/95F
Lithophragma maximumWoodland-star, San Clemente IslandE9/16/05U
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensisNo common nameE8/10/98F
Lobelia monostachyaNo common nameE8/10/98F
Lobelia niihauensisNo common nameE8/12/95F
Lobelia oahuensisNo common nameE8/10/98F
Lomatium bradshawiiDesert-parsley, Bradshaw'sE8/13/93F
Lomatium cookiiLomatium, Cook'sENone
Lotus dendroideus ssp. traskiaeBroom, San Clemente IslandE1/26/84F
Lupinus aridorumLupine, scrubE6/20/96RF(1)
Lupinus nipomensisLupine, Nipomo MesaENone
Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii)Lupine, Kincaid'sT9/16/05U
Lupinus tidestromiiLupine, cloverE9/29/98F
Lyonia truncata var. proctoriiNo common nameE7/31/95F
Lysimachia asperulaefoliaLoosestrife, rough-leavedE4/19/95F
Lysimachia filifoliaNo common nameE9/20/95F
Lysimachia lydgateiNo common nameE7/29/97F
Lysimachia maximaNo common nameE5/20/98F
Macbridea albaBirds-in-a-nest, whiteT6/22/94F
Malacothamnus clementinusBush-mallow, San Clemente IslandE1/26/84F
Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticusBush-mallow, Santa Cruz IslandE9/26/2000F
Malacothrix indecoraMalacothrix, Santa Cruz IslandE9/26/2000F
Malacothrix squalidaMalacothrix, islandE9/26/2000F
Manihot walkeraeManioc, Walker'sE12/12/93F
Mariscus faurieiNo common nameE9/26/96F
Mariscus pennatiformisNo common nameE7/10/99F
Marshallia mohriiButton, Mohr's BarbaraT11/26/91F
Melicope adscendensAlaniE7/29/97F
Melicope ballouiAlaniE7/29/97F
Melicope haupuensisAlaniE9/20/95F
Melicope knudseniiAlaniE9/20/95F
Melicope lydgateiAlaniE8/10/98F
Melicope mucronulataAlaniE7/29/97F
Melicope munroiAlaniE9/19/02F
Melicope ovalisAlaniE7/29/97F
Melicope pallidaAlaniE9/20/95F
Melicope quadrangularisAlaniE9/20/95F
Melicope reflexaAlaniE9/26/96F
Melicope saint-johniiAlaniE8/10/98F
Melicope zahlbruckneriAlaniE5/11/98F
Mentzelia leucophyllaBlazingstar, Ash MeadowsT9/28/90F
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensisMonkey-flower, MichiganE9/17/97F
Mirabilis macfarlaneiFour-o'clock, MacFarlane'sT6/30/2000RF(1)
Mitracarpus maxwelliaeNo common nameE10/6/98F
Mitracarpus polycladusNo common nameE10/6/98F
Monardella linoides ssp. vimineaMonardella, willowyENone
Monolopia (=Lembertia) congdoniiWooly-threads, San JoaquinE9/30/98F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Munroidendron racemosumNo common nameE9/20/95F
Myrcia paganiiNo common nameE9/29/97F
Myrsine juddiiKoleaE8/10/98F
Myrsine linearifoliaKoleaT8/23/98F
Navarretia fossalisNavarretia, spreadingT9/3/98F
Navarretia leucocephala ssp. pauciflora (=n. pauciflora)Navarretia, few-floweredE3/7/06F
Navarretia leucocephala ssp. plieanthaNavarretia, many-floweredE3/7/06F
Neostapfia colusanaGrass, ColusaT3/7/06F
Neraudia angulataNo common nameE8/12/95F
Neraudia ovataNo common nameE5/11/98F
Neraudia sericeaNo common nameE7/10/99F
Nesogenes rotensisNo common nameE9/21/05U
Nitrophila mohavensisNiterwort, AmargosaE9/28/90F
Nolina brittonianaBeargrass, Britton'sE6/20/96RF(1)
Nothocestrum breviflorumˋAieaE9/26/96F
Nothocestrum peltatumˋAieaE9/20/95F
Nototrichium humileKulu'iE8/12/95F
Ochrosia kilaueaensisHoleiE9/26/96F
Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensisEvening-primrose, Eureka ValleyE12/13/82F
Oenothera deltoides ssp. howelliiEvening-primrose, Antioch DunesE4/25/84RF(1)
Opuntia treleaseiCactus, BakersfieldE9/30/98F
Orcuttia californicaOrcutt grass, CaliforniaE9/3/98F
Orcuttia inaequalisOrcutt grass, San JoaquinT3/7/06F
Orcuttia pilosaOrcutt grass, hairyE3/7/06F
Orcuttia tenuisOrcutt grass, slenderT3/7/06F
Orcuttia viscidaOrcutt grass, SacramentoE3/7/06F
Osmoxylon mariannenseNo common nameENone
Ottoschulzia rhodoxylonPalo de rosaE9/20/94F
Oxypolis canbyiDropwort, Canby'sE4/10/90F
Oxytheca parishii var. goodmanianaOxytheca, cushenburyE9/30/97D
Oxytropis campestris var. chartaceaLocoweed, Fassett'sT3/29/91F
Panicum fauriei var. carteriPanicgrass, Carter'sE6/4/94F
Panicum niihauenseLauˋehuE7/10/99F
Paronychia chartaceaWhitlow-wort, paperyT5/18/99F
Parvisedum leiocarpumStonecrop, Lake CountyE3/7/06F
Pedicularis furbishiaeLousewort, FurbishE7/2/91RF(1)
Pediocactus (=echinocactus, =utahia) sileriCactus, Siler pincushionT4/14/86F
Pediocactus bradyiCactus, Brady pincushionE3/28/85F
Pediocactus despainiiCactus, San RafaelE10/2/95D
Pediocactus knowltoniiCactus, KnowltonE3/29/85F
Pediocactus peeblesianus peeblesianusCactus, Peebles NavajoE3/30/84F
Pediocactus winkleriCactus, WinklerT10/2/95D
Penstemon haydeniiPenstemon, blowoutE7/17/92F
Penstemon penlandiiBeardtongue, PenlandE9/30/92F
Pentachaeta bellidifloraPentachaeta, white-rayedE9/30/98F
Pentachaeta lyoniiPentachaeta, Lyon'sE9/30/99F
Peperomia wheeleriPeperomia, Wheeler'sE11/26/90F
Peucedanum sandwicenseMakouT9/20/95F
Phacelia argillaceaPhacelia, clayE4/12/82F
Phacelia formosulaPhacelia, North ParkE3/21/86F
Phacelia insularis ssp. insularisPhacelia, islandE9/26/2000F
Phlox hirsutaPhlox, YrekaE7/19/04D
Phlox nivalis ssp. texensisPhlox, Texas trailingE3/28/95F
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensisNo common nameE9/29/95F
Phyllostegia hirsutaNo common nameE8/10/98F
Phyllostegia kaalaensisNo common nameE8/10/98F
Phyllostegia knudseniiNo common nameE8/23/98F
Phyllostegia manniiNo common nameE9/26/96F
Phyllostegia mollisNo common nameE8/12/95F
Phyllostegia parvifloraNo common nameE7/10/99F
Phyllostegia racemosaKiponaponaE5/11/98F
Phyllostegia velutinaNo common nameE5/11/98F
Phyllostegia waimeaeNo common nameE9/20/95F
Phyllostegia warshaueriNo common nameE5/11/98F
Phyllostegia wawranaNo common nameE8/23/98F
Physaria obcordataTwinpod, Dudley BluffsT8/13/93F
Pilosocereus robiniiCactus, Key treeE5/18/99F
Pinguicula ionanthaButterwort, Godfrey'sT6/22/94F
Piperia yadoniiPiperia, Yadon'sE12/20/04F
Pityopsis ruthiiAster, Ruth's goldenE6/11/92F
Plagiobothrys hirtusPopcornflower, roughE9/25/03F
Plagiobothrys strictusAllocarya, CalistogaENone
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Plantago hawaiensisKuahiwi laukahiE9/26/96F
Plantago princepsKuahiwi laukahiE7/10/99F
Platanthera holochilaNo common nameE7/10/99F
Platanthera leucophaeaOrchid, eastern prairie fringedT9/29/99F
Platanthera praeclaraOrchid, western prairie fringedT9/30/96F
Pleodendron macranthumChupacallosE9/11/98F
Pleomele hawaiiensisHala pepeE5/11/98F
Poa atropurpureaBluegrass, San BernardinoE9/16/05U
Poa manniiBluegrass, Mann'sE9/20/95F
Poa napensisBluegrass, NapaENone
Poa sandvicensisBluegrass, HawaiianE9/20/95F
Poa siphonoglossaNo common nameE9/20/95F
Pogogyne abramsiiMesa-mint, San DiegoE9/3/98F
Pogogyne nudiusculaMesa-mint, OtayE9/3/98F
Polygala lewtoniiPolygala, Lewton'sE5/18/99F
Polygala smalliiPolygala, tinyE5/18/99F
Polygonella basiramiaWireweedE5/18/99F
Polygonella myriophyllaSandlaceE5/18/99F
Polygonum hickmaniiPolygonum, Scotts ValleyENone
Portulaca sclerocarpaPoˋeE9/26/96F
Potamogeton clystocarpusPondweed, Little Aguja (=Creek)E6/20/94F
Potentilla hickmaniiPotentilla, Hickman'sE12/20/04F
Primula maguireiPrimrose, MaguireT9/27/90F
Pritchardia affinisLoˋuluE9/26/96F
Pritchardia aylmer-robinsoniiWahaneEN/AE
Pritchardia kaalaeLoˋuluE8/10/98F
Pritchardia munroiLoˋuluE9/26/96F
Pritchardia napaliensisLoˋuluE8/23/98F
Pritchardia remotaLoˋuluE3/31/98F
Pritchardia schattaueriLoˋuluE5/11/98F
Pritchardia viscosaLoˋuluE8/23/98F
Prunus geniculataPlum, scrubE6/20/96RF(1)
Pseudobahia bahiifoliaSunburst, Hartweg's goldenE9/16/05U
Pseudobahia peirsoniiSunburst, San Joaquin adobeT9/16/05U
Pteralyxia kauaiensisKauluE9/20/95F
Ptilimnium nodosumHarperellaE3/5/91F
Purshia (=cowania) subintegraCliff-rose, ArizonaE6/16/95F
Quercus hinckleyiOak, HinckleyT9/30/92F
Ranunculus aestivalis (=acriformis)Buttercup, autumnE9/16/91F
Remya kauaiensisNo common nameE9/20/95F
Remya mauiensisRemya, MauiE7/29/97F
Remya montgomeryiNo common nameE9/20/95F
Rhododendron chapmaniiRhododendron, ChapmanE9/8/83F
Rhus michauxiiSumac, Michaux'sE4/30/93F
Rhynchospora knieskerniiBeaked-rush, Knieskern'sT9/29/93F
Ribes echinellumGooseberry, MiccosukeeTN/AE
Rorippa gambelliiWatercress, Gambel'sE9/28/98F
Sagittaria fasciculataArrowhead, bunchedE9/8/83F
Sagittaria secundifoliaWater-plantain, Kral'sT8/12/91F
Sanicula mariversaNo common nameE8/12/95F
Sanicula purpureaNo common nameE7/10/99F
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaienseSandalwood, Lanai (=ìliahi)E9/29/95F
Sarracenia oreophilaPitcher-plant, greenE12/12/94RF(2)
Sarracenia rubra alabamensisPitcher-plant, Alabama canebrakeE10/8/92F
Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesiiPitcher-plant, mountain sweetE8/13/90F
Scaevola coriaceaNaupaka, dwarfE7/29/97F
Schiedea adamantisSchiedea, Diamond HeadE2/2/94F
Schiedea apokremnosMaˋoliˋoliE9/20/95F
Schiedea haleakalensisNo common nameE7/29/97F
Schiedea helleriNo common nameE8/23/98F
Schiedea hookeriNo common nameE7/10/99F
Schiedea kaalaeNo common nameE8/12/95F
Schiedea kauaiensisNo common nameE8/23/98F
Schiedea kealiaeMaˋoliˋoliE8/10/98F
Schiedea lydgateiNo common nameE9/26/96F
Schiedea membranaceaNo common nameE8/23/98F
Schiedea nuttalliiNo common nameE7/10/99F
Schiedea sarmentosaNo common nameE5/20/98F
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopodaNo common nameE9/20/95F
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulinaNo common nameT9/20/95F
Schiedea stellarioidesLaulihilihiE8/23/98F
Schiedea verticillataNo common nameE3/31/98F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
Schoenocrambe argillaceaReed-mustard, clayT9/14/94F
Schoenocrambe barnebyiReed-mustard, BarnebyE9/14/94F
Schoenocrambe suffrutescensReed-mustard, shrubbyE9/14/94F
Schoepfia arenariaNo common nameT1/10/92F
Schwalbea americanaChaffseed, AmericanE9/29/95F
Scirpus ancistrochaetusBulrush, NortheasternE8/25/93F
Sclerocactus glaucusCactus, Uinta Basin hooklessT9/27/90F
Sclerocactus mesae-verdaeCactus, Mesa VerdeT3/30/84F
Sclerocactus wrightiaeCactus, Wright fishhookE12/24/85F
Scutellaria floridanaSkullcap, FloridaT6/22/94F
Scutellaria montanaSkullcap, large-floweredT5/15/96F
Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyiRoseroot, Leedy'sT9/25/98F
Senecio franciscanusGroundsel, San Francisco PeaksT7/21/87F
Senecio layneaeButterweed, Layne'sT8/30/02F
Serianthes nelsoniiIagu, Hayun (=(Guam), Tronkon guafi (Rota))E2/2/94F
Sesbania tomentosaOhaiE7/10/99F
Sibara filifoliaRockcress, Santa Cruz IslandE9/16/05U
Sicyos albaˋAnunuE5/11/98F
Sidalcea keckiiChecker-mallow, Keck'sE9/16/05U
Sidalcea nelsonianaChecker-mallow, Nelson'sT9/30/98F
Sidalcea oregana ssp. validaChecker-mallow, Kenwood MarshENone
Sidalcea oregana var. calvaCheckermallow, Wenatchee MountainsE9/30/04F
Sidalcea pedataChecker-mallow, pedateE7/31/98F
Silene alexandriNo common nameE9/26/96F
Silene hawaiiensisNo common nameT9/26/96F
Silene lanceolataNo common nameE9/26/96F
Silene perlmaniiNo common nameE8/12/95F
Silene polypetalaCampion, fringedE10/1/96D
Silene spaldingiiCatchfly, Spalding'sT9/21/05U
Sisyrinchium dichotomumIrisette, whiteE4/10/95F
Solanum drymophilumErubiaE7/9/92F
Solanum incompletumPopolo ku maiE7/10/99F
Solanum sandwicenseˋAiakeakua, popoloE9/20/95F
Solidago albopilosaGoldenrod, white-hairedT9/28/93F
Solidago houghtoniiGoldenrod, Houghton'sT9/17/97F
Solidago shortiiGoldenrod, Short'sE5/25/88F
Solidago spithamaeaGoldenrod, Blue RidgeT10/28/87F
Spermolepis hawaiiensisNo common nameE7/10/99F
Spigelia gentianoidesPinkroot, gentianENone
Spiraea virginianaSpiraea, VirginiaT11/13/92F
Spiranthes delitescensLadies'-tresses, Canelo HillsENone
Spiranthes diluvialisLadies'-tresses, UteT9/21/95D
Spiranthes parksiiLadies'-tresses, NavasotaE9/21/84F
Stahlia monospermaCobana negraT11/1/96F
Stenogyne angustifolia var. angustifoliaNo common nameE9/20/93D
Stenogyne bifidaNo common nameE9/26/96F
Stenogyne campanulataNo common nameE9/20/95F
Stenogyne kanehoanaNo common nameE8/12/95F
Stephanomeria malheurensisWire-lettuce, MalheurE3/21/91F
Streptanthus albidus ssp. albidusJewelflower, Metcalf CanyonE9/30/98F
Streptanthus nigerJewelflower, TiburonE9/30/98F
Styrax portoricensisPalo de jazminE7/31/95F
Styrax texanusSnowbells, TexasE7/31/87F
Suaeda californicaSeablite, CaliforniaENone
Swallenia alexandraeGrass, Eureka DuneE12/13/82F
Taraxacum californicumTaraxacum, CaliforniaE9/16/05U
Ternstroemia luquillensisPalo coloradoE7/31/95F
Ternstroemia subsessilisNo common nameE7/31/95F
Tetramolopium arenariumNo common nameE9/26/96F
Tetramolopium capillarePamakaniE7/29/97F
Tetramolopium filiformeNo common nameE8/12/95F
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotumNo common nameE8/12/95F
Tetramolopium remyiNo common nameE9/29/95F
Tetramolopium rockiiNo common nameT9/26/96F
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpaˋoheˋoheE8/10/98F
Thalictrum cooleyiMeadowrue, Cooley'sE4/21/94F
Thelypodium howellii spectabilisThelypody, Howell's spectacularT6/3/02F
Thelypodium stenopetalumMustard, slender-petaledE7/31/98F
Thlaspi californicumPenny-cress, Kneeland PrairieE8/14/03F
Thymophylla tephroleucaDogweed, ashyE7/29/88F
Thysanocarpus conchuliferusFringepod, Santa Cruz IslandE9/26/2000F
Townsendia apricaTownsendia, Last ChanceT8/20/93F
TABLE 11.1
Endangered and threatened plant species in the United States, March 2006 [continued ]
Scientific nameInverted common nameListing statusaRecovery plan dateRecovery plan statusb
aE=endangered, T=threatened
bRecovery plan stages: E=exempt, U = under development, F=final, D=draft, TD=technical draft, RD=draft under revision, RF=final revision, O=other
source: Adapted from "Flowering Plants Species Report" and "Non-Flowering Species Report" and "Listed FWS/Joint FWS and NMFS Species and Populations with Recovery Plans (Sorted by Listed Entity)," in Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, March 6, 2006, (accessed March 6, 2006)
Trematolobelia singularisNo common nameE8/10/98F
Trichilia triacanthaBariacoE8/20/91F
Trichostema austromontanum ssp. compactumBluecurls, Hidden LakeT9/16/05U
Trifolium amoenumClover, showy IndianENone
Trifolium stoloniferumClover, running buffaloE8/12/05RD(1)
Trifolium trichocalyxClover, MontereyE12/20/04F
Trillium persistensTrillium, persistentE3/27/84F
Trillium reliquumTrillium, relictE1/31/91F
Tuctoria greeneiTuctoria, Greene'sE3/7/06F
Tuctoria mucronataGrass, SolanoE9/11/85F
Urera kaalaeOpuheE8/12/95F
Verbena californicaVervain, Red HillsT9/16/05U
Verbesina dissitaCrownbeard, big-leavedTNone
Vernonia proctoriiNo common nameE7/31/95F
Vicia menziesiiVetch, HawaiianE5/18/84F
Vigna o-wahuensisNo common nameE7/10/99F
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissonianaPamakaniE8/12/95F
Viola helenaeNo common nameE5/31/94F
Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensisNani waiˋaleˋaleE8/23/98F
Viola lanaiensisNo common nameE9/29/95F
Viola oahuensisNo common nameE8/10/98F
Warea amplexifoliaWarea, wide-leafE2/17/93F
Warea carteriMustard, Carter'sE5/18/99F
Wilkesia hobdyiIliau, dwarfE9/20/95F
Xylosma crenatumNo common nameE9/20/95F
Xyris tennesseensisGrass, Tennessee yellow-eyedE6/24/94F
Yermo xanthocephalusYellowhead, desertTNone
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosumAˋeE5/11/98F
Zanthoxylum hawaiienseAˋeE9/26/96F
Zanthoxylum thomasianumPrickly-ash, St. ThomasE4/5/88F
Zizania texanaWild-rice, TexasE2/14/96RF(1)
Ziziphus celataZiziphus, FloridaE5/18/99F

limited range of distribution and are threatened by alteration and loss of habitat.

Cycads are unusual plants often mistaken for palms or ferns. They have thick, soft trunks and large, leaf-like crowns. Cycads are found in tropical or semitropical regions. Their rarity makes them popular with collectors. The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) is the only cycad listed under the ESA. This scrubby tree is extremely rare and is found only on the bluffs along the Apalachicola River in the panhandle of Florida. An unknown disease virtually wiped out the species in the wild during the 1950s.

Ferns and Allies

Ferns are an abundant and diverse plant group. There are up to 20,000 species of ferns, and they are associated mostly with tropical and subtropical regions. In general these plants are characterized by stems with long protruding "leaves" called fronds. Fern allies are plants with similar life cycles to ferns, but without their stem or leaf structure. Examples of fern allies include the club mosses and horsetails.

There are twenty-six fern and allied species listed under the ESA. Nearly all are endangered. Geographical locations with large numbers of imperiled ferns include Hawaii (twelve species) and Puerto Rico (eight species). The remaining species are found primarily in the Southeast, with the exception of the Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum), which is native to Alaska.


Lichens are not truly plants. Scientists place them in the fungi kingdom, instead of the plant kingdom. Lichens are plantlike life-forms composed of two separate organ-isms—a fungus and an alga. Biologists believe there are up to 4,000 lichen species in the United States. They are found in many different habitats and grow extremely slowly. Some lichens look like moss, while others appear more like traditional plants with a leafy or blade structure. Lichens do not have a "skin" to protect them from the atmosphere. They are highly sensitive to air contaminants and have disappeared from many urban areas, presumably because of air pollution. Lichens are most predominant in undisturbed forests, bogs, and wetlands, particularly in California, Hawaii, Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and the Appalachians. They are commonly found on rocky outcroppings. Lichens provide a foodstuff for some animals and are used by some bird species in nest building.

TABLE 11.2
The ten listed plant entities with the highest expenditures under the Endangered Species Act, fiscal year 2004
Cimmon nameScientific nameListing status*Expenditure
*E=endangered; T=threatened
source: Adapted from "Table 1. Reported FY 2004 Expenditures for Endangered and Threatened Species, Not Including Land Acquisition Costs," in Federal and State Endangered and Threatened Species Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2004, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, January 2005, (accessed February 11, 2006)
Peirson's milk-vetchAstragalus magdalenae var.peirsoniiT$1,069,717
PondberryLindera melissifoliaE$827,115
Nelson's checker-mallowSidalcea nelsoniianaT$621,980
Gentner's fritillaryFritillaria gentneriE$427,440
Texas wild-riceZizania texanaE$417,660
Mauna Loa (=Kaˋu) silverswordArgyroxiphium kauenseE$360,152
Ute ladies'-tressesSpiranthes diluvialisT$303,810
Western prairie fringed orchidPlatanthera praeclaraT$292,639
Seabeach amaranthAmaranthus pumilusT$283,384
Kincaid's lupineLupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var.kincaidii)T$276,068

As of March 2006 there were two lichen species listed under the ESA—rock gnome lichen (Gymnoderma lineare) and Florida perforate cladonia (Cladonia perforata). Both are classified as endangered. During the 1970s rock gnome lichen was virtually wiped out in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee due to zealous collecting by scientists. Florida perforate clado-nia is found only in rosemary scrub habitats in portions of Florida. It is endangered due to loss or degradation of those habitats.

Flowering Plants

Flowering plants are vascular plants with flowers—clusters of specialized leaves that participate in reproduction. The flowers of some species are large and colorful, while others are extremely small and barely noticeable to humans. Biologists estimate that 80% to 90% of all plants on Earth are flowering plants.

As shown in Table 11.1, there are more than 700 flowering plants listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA. They come from a wide variety of taxonomic groups and are found in many different habitats. The five largest families represented are as follows:

  • Asteraceae (asters, daisies, and sunflowers)—eighty-six species
  • Campanulaceae (bellflowers)—forty-nine species
  • Fabaceae (legumes and pulses)—forty-nine species
  • Lamiaceae (mints)—thirty-five species
  • Brassicaceae (mustard and cabbage)—thirty-four species


Most threatened and endangered plant species in the United States are concentrated in specific areas of the country. Figure 11.3 shows a breakdown of listed plants by predominant region as of March 2006. More than one-third of all listings occur in Hawaii. California is home to nearly one-fourth of all listed plants. Together these two states account for more than half of all plants listed under the Endangered Species Act. One other specific region, the Southeast, is notable for its contingent (14%) of threatened and endangered plants. The majority of the imperiled plants in this region are found in Florida. The southwestern United States and Puerto Rico are each home to 7% of listed plants. The remaining 15% of imperiled plants are scattered across other regions of the country.

Hawaiian Plants

Figure 11.4 shows the eight major islands comprising the state of Hawaii. The island of Oahu is home to the state's capital, Honolulu. However, Oahu is not the largest of the islands. That distinction goes to the island labeled "Hawaii," which is commonly called "the big island." In the following discussion, the term Hawaii refers to the entire state.

Because of its isolation from continental land masses, many of the species found in Hawaii exist nowhere else in the world. An estimated 90% of Hawaiian plant species are in fact endemic. Because of large-scale deforestation and habitat destruction on the islands, Hawaii is home to more threatened and endangered plants than any other state in the nation. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2006, reports that in 2006 there are 273 listed species in Hawaii. Hawaiian plants have suffered from the introduction of invasive predators such as cows, pigs, and insects, as well as the loss of critical pollinators with the decline of numerous species of native birds and insects. According to Marie M. Bruegemann in "A Plan for Hawaiian Plants and Their Ecosytems" (Endangered Species Bulletin, July-December 2003), 100 of Hawaii's 1,500 known plant species are believed to have become extinct since the islands were colonized by humans.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has developed more than a dozen recovery plans for imperiled Hawaiian plants. Many of the plans cover multiple species found in the same ecosystem or habitat types. Examples include:

  • Oahu plants—sixty-six species
  • Kauai plant cluster—thirty-seven species
  • Waianae plant cluster—thirty-one species
  • Multi-island plants—twenty-six species
  • Big Island plant cluster—twenty-two species

In 2003 the FWS designated over 208,000 acres of critical habitat on the Big Island as habitat for forty-one listed plant species. The area designated was 52% smaller than originally anticipated because it excluded a large tract of U.S. Army land as well as private land held by the Queen Liliuokalani Trust and others. The U.S. Army land was excluded because of national security concerns and also because the Army agreed to voluntarily cooperate with the FWS regarding activity that affects endangered species. The Queen Liliuokalani Trust land was excluded because the trust vowed to discontinue its current efforts on behalf of endangered species if its lands were included in the critical habitat designation. Finally, land near the cities of Kailua and Kona, for which housing development was planned, was excluded from critical habitat designation because the economic and social costs of inclusion were too great.

Designation of critical habitat in Hawaii was completed after a successful lawsuit brought against the Fish and Wildlife Service by Earthjustice, the Conservation Council for Hawaii, the Sierra Club, and the Hawaii Botanical Society.

Californian Plants

As shown in Figure 11.3 California is home to 22% of threatened and endangered plant species in the United States. More than 160 imperiled plants are found there, including several types of checker-mallow, dudleya, evening primrose, grass, jewelflower, larkspur, manzanita, milk-vetch, paintbrush, rock-cress, spineflower, and thistle.


Milk-vetch is an herbaceous perennial flowering plant found in various parts of the world. It received its common name during the 1500s thanks to a belief among European farmers that the plant increased the milk yield of goats. As of March 2006 there were ten species of milk-vetch listed as threatened or endangered in California, the most listings for any single plant type in that state. These species are as follows:

  • Braunton's milk-vetch (Astragalus brauntonii)
  • Clara Hunt's milk-vetch (Astragalus clarianus)
  • Coachella Valley milk-vetch (Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellae)
  • Coastal dunes milk-vetch (Astragalus tener var. titi)
  • Cushenbury milk-vetch (Astragalus albens)
  • Fish Slough milk-vetch (Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis)
  • Lane Mountain milk-vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus)
  • Peirson's milk-vetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii)
  • Triple-ribbed milk-vetch (Astragalus tricarinatus)
  • Ventura Marsh milk-vetch (Astragalus pycnostachyus var. lanosissimus)

Peirson's milk-vetch is a plant with a long history of litigation and controversy in California. It is found in only one small area of Imperial County in the southern part of the state. (See Figure 11.5.) This area is the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA) managed by the Bureau of Land Management under the U.S. Department of the Interior. ISDRA has a remote and barren landscape dominated by huge rolling sand dunes—the Algodones Dunes, the largest sand dune fields in North America. ISDRA covers 185,000 acres and is a popular destination for off-highway vehicle (OHV) riders, receiving more than one million visitors annually.

In 1998 Peirson's milk-vetch was designated a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service because of the threat of destruction by OHVs and other recreational activities at Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area. The agency decided not to designate critical habitat at that time, fearing the remaining plants would be subject to deliberate vandalism. The Bureau of Land Management was sued by conservation groups and accused of not consulting with the FWS about the threats to the Peirson's milk-vetch before establishing a management plan for the Recreation Area. In 2000, in response to that lawsuit, the Bureau of Land Management closed more than a third of the ISDRA to off-highway vehicle use.

In October 2001 a petition to delist the species was submitted on behalf of the American Sand Association, San Diego Off-Road Coalition, and Off-Road Business Association. A month later two lawsuits were filed against the Fish and Wildlife Service by conservation organizations challenging the agency's decision not to designate critical habitat for the species. Under court order, the FWS proposed critical habitat in 2003. Meanwhile the delisting petition submitted in 2001 triggered a status review.

In 2004 the FWS issued a final designation of critical habitat for Peirson's milk-vetch that encompassed nearly 22,000 acres of Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area. This was less than half of the acreage originally proposed. The reduction was made after an economic analysis revealed that closure of ISDRA areas to off-road vehicle use would have a negative impact on local businesses. That same year the agency completed the status review triggered by the 2001 delisting proposal and found that the species should remain listed as threatened. In July 2005 the original petitioners and additional OHV and motorcycle associations submitted a new petition to delist Peirson's milk-vetch. This petition also triggered a status review, which was expected to be completed in late 2006. In a public statement, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service noted that the new petition contains data indicating that the species is more abundant and widespread than originally believed.

As of spring 2006 portions of the ISDRA remained under temporary closure to off-highway vehicle riders due to ongoing litigation against the Bureau of Land Management regarding management of the Recreation Area.


Numerous species of threatened and endangered plants have reached their precarious state due to urbanization and other human activity. Figure 11.6 shows the species distribution of six threatened and endangered plant species found in the mountains surrounding the Los Angeles basin:

  • Braunton's milk-vetch (Astragalus brauntonii)
  • Marcescent dudleya (Dudleya cymosa ssp. marces-cens)
  • Santa Monica Mountains dudleya (Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia)
  • Conejo dudleya (Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva)
  • Verity's dudleya (Dudleya verityi)
  • Lyon's pentachaeta (Pentachaeata lyonii)

The recovery plan for these species cites threats including "urban development, recreational activities, alteration of fire cycles through fire suppression and pre-suppression (fuel modification) activities, over-collecting, habitat fragmentation and degradation, and competition from invasive weeds." Some species are currently so reduced in number that extinction due to random events is also a threat.

Floridian Plants

As shown in Figure 11.3, the southeastern states contain 14% of the threatened and endangered plant species listed under the ESA as of March 2006. Approximately half of these listed plants are found only in Florida. They include multiple species of mint, pawpaw, rosemary, and spurge.

Many of Florida's imperiled plants are found in the southern part of the state—the only subtropical ecological habitat in the continental United States. Figure 3.2 in Chapter 3 shows a map of the south Florida ecosystem, including its national parks, national preserves, and numerous national wildlife refuges. The Fish and Wildlife Service maintains a field office in this area in Vero Beach, Florida. The majority of native plant species located in the bottom half of the south Florida ecosystem originated from the tropics.

In 1999 the FWS published the South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (MSRP) covering sixty-six species, including dozens of plant species. In 2004 an implementation schedule for many of the species in the plan was issued, which divided the ecosystem into ecological communities as follows:

  • Florida scrub/scrubby flatwoods/scrubby high pine—nineteen plant species
  • Pine rocklands—five plant species
  • Beach dune/coastal strand—one plant species
  • Tropical hardwood hammock—one plant species
  • Mesic and hydric pine flatwoods—one plant species
  • Freshwater marsh/wet prairie—one plant species

The recovery and restoration tasks outlined in the MSRP are to be implemented through creation of a team of federal, state, and local governmental agencies; Native American tribal governments; academic representatives; industry representatives; and members of the private sector. The schedule prioritizes the plan's recovery actions and estimates costs on an annual basis for implementing the actions in each ecological community.

The South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan is considered a landmark plan, because it was one of the first recovery plans to focus on an ecosystem approach to recovery, rather than a species-by-species approach.


As of March 2006 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed only three foreign species of plants as threatened or endangered as follows:

  • Guatemalan pinabete fir (Abies guatemalensis)—Threatened
  • Chilean false larch (Fitzroya cupressoides)—Threatened
  • Coast Rican jatropha (Jatropha costaricensis)—Endangered

The 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants from the World Conservation Union (IUCN) was the first global assessment of plants, and was the result of over twenty years of study by botanists, conservation organizations, botanical gardens, and museums around the world. It revealed that 12.5%—one of every eight—of the world's plant species are in danger of extinction. In the United States, the figure is even higher, with 29% of the nation's 16,000 plant species threatened.

The IUCN also reported that the vast majority of plants at risk are extremely limited geographically; most are not found outside of their home nations, making these species particularly vulnerable to extinction. Many plant species known to have medicinal value are threatened, including many species in the yew family, a source of cancer-fighting compounds. The IUCN notes that the loss of each species causes a loss of genetic material that could be used to produce stronger, healthier crops for human and animal consumption.

The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species currently lists 8,321 species of threatened plants. This is 70% of the 11,824 plants that have been examined. However, only 4% of plant species have been studied in sufficient detail to assess their status, and the actual number of threatened species is likely to be much higher.

The majority of IUCN-listed species are flowering plants, a diverse and well-studied group. In 2004 the IUCN reported that 7,796 flowering plants were threatened. Other IUCN-listed species include eighty true mosses, 140 ferns and allies, and 305 cycads. Habitat loss accounts at least in part for the threatened status of the vast majority of IUCN-listed plants


views updated May 17 2018


Research into the flora mentioned in the ancient Hebrew literature is grounded on the basic assumption that within historical times no fundamental changes have taken place in the country's climate (see *Agriculture). This assumption, which allows conclusions to be drawn from present-day plants about the floral landscape of bygone days, is particularly important for identifying the flora of the Bible and of talmudic literature. The overwhelming majority of them can be identified with those of today, but, as with all the terms of biblical and talmudic realia, many and varied identifications and interpretations have been suggested for them. Modern botanical and philological studies have, however, helped greatly in arriving at a correct identification.

In the Bible

The Bible mentions about 100 names of plants, the bulk of them of Ereẓ Israel, the others being trees of Lebanon and tropical plants that yield an aromatic substance or were used in incense. (See Table: Plants in the Bible and Mishnah.) These names refer to specific plants, but some are generic names, such as koẓ ve-dardar ("thorns and thistles") and shamir vashayit ("briars and thorns"). Although the biblical plants are chiefly those which were economically important, they are to a large extent mentioned fortuitously. The carob, for example, although undoubtedly grown at that time, is not mentioned in the Bible, while specific vegetables are mentioned in one verse only of the Bible; and these are the vegetables of Egypt for which the children of Israel longed during their wandering in the wilderness (Num. 11:5).

In Talmudic Literature

The Mishnah, the Talmuds, and the Midrashim add hundreds of names of plants to those mentioned in the Bible. They are particularly numerous in the Mishnah of Zera'im which treats of laws connected with agriculture. In the aggadic Midrashim, too, many plants are mentioned in simile and parable. In all, the ancient literature on Ereẓ Israel mentions close to 500 names of flora. The Babylonian Talmud refers to scores of plants of Babylonia and its neighborhood. In the Table: Plants in Bible and Mishnah, only one identification is given. Alternative suggestions of identification will be found in the individual articles.


H.B. Tristram, Natural History of the Bible (18775); J. Schwarz, Tevu'ot ha-Areẓ (1900); Loew, Flora; G. Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palaestina, 7 vols. in 8 (1928–42); H.N. and A.L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (1952); J. Feliks, Ha-Ḥakla'ut be-Ereẓ Yisrael bi-Tekufat ha-Mishnah ve-ha-Talmud (1963); idem, Kilei Zera'im ve-Harkavah (1967); idem, Olam ha-Ẓome'aḥ ha-Mikra'i (19682), contains additional bibliography. add. bibliography: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ.

[Jehuda Feliks]

English NameScientific NameHebrew nameDescription of PlantReference
AcaciaAcacia albidaשִׁטָּה, שִׁטִּיםthorn treeEx. 26:15; Isa. 41:19, et al.
AlgaChlorophytaיְרוֹקָהseaweedShab. 2:1
AlmondPrunus amygdalusלוּזfruit treeGen. 30:37
(Amygdalus communis)שָׁקֵדNum. 17:23; Jer. 1:11, et al.
AloeAquilaria agallochaאֲהָלִיםfragrant tropical treeNum. 24:6; Prov. 7:17
אֲהָלוֹתPs. 45:9; Song 4:14;
אַלְמֻגִּיםI Kings 10:11–12
אַלְגֻּמִּיםII Chron. 2:7; 9:10–11
AmaranthAmaranthus retroflexusיַרְבּוּזvegetable (herb)Shev. 9:1
AmomumAmomum cardamomumחָמָםtropical spice plantUk. 3:5
ApplePyrus malusתַּפּוּחַfruit treeJoel 1:12; Song 2:3, et al.
ArtichokeCynara scolymusקִנְרֵסgarden vegetableKil. 5:8; Uk. 1:6
Asafetida, FennelFerula assafoetidaחִלְתִּיתherb whose gum fennel is used in spices and medicineShab. 20:3; Av. Zar. 2:7, et al.
Balm, BalsamCommiphora opobalsamumבֹּשֶׂםthe balsam shrub whoseSong 5:1
נָטָףresin yields an aromaticEx. 30:34
צְרִי, צֳרִיsubstanceGen. 37:25; 43:11, et al.
קָטָףShev. 7:6
BarleyHordeum sativumשְׂעוֹרָהcereal grassEx. 9:31; Deut. 8:8, et al.
Barley, two-rowedHordeum distichumשִׁבּוֹלֶת שׁוּעָלcereal grassIsa. 28:25
שׂוֹרָהKil. 1:1; Pes. 2:5, et al.
BdelliumCommiphora africanaבְּדוֹלַחtropical tree whose resin yields an aromatic substanceGen. 2:12; Num. 11:7
Bean, broadVicia fabaפּוֹלlegumeII Sam. 17:28; Ezek. 4:9, et al.
Bean, hyacinthDolichos lablabפּוֹל הַלָּבָןlegumeKil. 1:1; Ma'as. 4:7, et al.
Bean, yard-long (asparagus bean)Vigna sesquipedalisפּוֹל הֶחָרוּבlegumeKil. 1:2
Beet spinachBeta vulgaris var. ciclaתֶּרֶדgarden vegetableKil. 1:3; Ter. 10:11, et al.
Bermuda grassCynodon dactylonיַבְּלִיתweedKelim 3:6
BoxBuxus sempervirensאֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַhardwood shrubYoma 3:9; Kelim 12:8; Neg. 2:1
BoxthornLycium europaeumאָטָדthorny shrubGen. 50:10–11; Judg. 9:14–15, et al.
Broom plantRetama roetamרֹתֶםdesert shrubI Kings 19:4–5; Job 30:4, et al.
Cabbage, gardenBrassica oleracea var. capitataתְּרוֹבְתוֹרgarden vegetableKil. 1:3
Cabbage, kaleBrassica oleracea var. acephalaכְּרוּבhardy cabbageKil. 1:3; Ter. 10:11, et al.
Calamus ,Cymbopogon martiniקָנֶה הַטּוֹבtropical aromatic plantJer. 6:20
Indian sweetקְנֵה־בֹּשֶׂםEx. 30:23
קָנֶהIsa. 43:24; Song. 4:14, et al.
Cane, biflorateSaccharum biflorumאַגְּמוֹןreed that grows near waterIsa. 9:13, 58:5, et al.
CaperCapparis spinosaצָלָף, קַפְרֵסthorny plant whose buds andMa'as. 4:6
אֲבִיּוֹנָהfruit are used as spicesEccles. 12:5, Ma'as 4:6
CarawayCarum carvi(קַרְבוֹס (קַנְבוֹסvegetable used as a spiceKil. 2:5
CarobCeratonia siliquaחָרוּבfruit treePe'ah 1:5; Dem. 2:1, et al.
Castor-oil plantRicinus communisקִיקָיוֹןshrub whose seed yields oilJonah 4:6, 7, 9, 10
CattailTypha angustataסוּףmarsh and water plantEx. 2:3; Isa. 19:6, et al.
CedarCedrus libaniאֶרֶזforest tree of LebanonIsa. 2:13; Amos 2:9, et al.
CeleryApium graveolensכַּרְפַּסgarden vegetableShev. 9:1
Chick-peaCicer arietinumחָמִיץlegumeIsa. 30:24
אֲפוּנִיםPe'ah 3:3; Kil. 3:2
ChicoryCichorium intybusעוֹלְשִׁיןgarden vegetableShev. 7:1; Pes. 2:6
Chicory, wildCichorium pumilumעוֹלְשֵׁי־שָׂדֶהwild vegetableKil. 1:2
Cinnamon ,Cinnamonum zeylanicumקִנָּמוֹןaromatic tropical spice treeEx. 30:23; Prov. 7:17, et al.
Cinnamon, ChineseCinnamonum cassiaקִדָּהaromatic tropical spice treeEx. 30:24; Ezek. 27:19
Cinnamon, Indo-ChineseCinnamonum laureiקְצִיעָהaromatic tropical spice treePs. 45:9
CitronCitrus medicaעֵץ הָדָרfruit treeLev. 23:40
אֶתְרוֹגMa'as. 1:4; Bik. 2:6, et al.
ColocasiaColocasia antiquorumקַרְקָסvegetable with edible bulbMa'as. 5:8
CorianderCoriandrum sativumגַּדherb whose seed is used asEx. 16:31; Num. 11:7
כֻּסְבָּרa spiceKil. 1:2; Ma'as. 3:9, et al.
CottonGossypium herbraceumכַּרְפַּסplant with fibrous fruitEsth. 1:6
Gossypium arboreumצֶמֶר־גֶּפֶןKil. 7:2
CowpeaVigna sinensisפּוֹל הַמִּצְרִיlegumeKil. 1:2; Shev. 2:9, et al.
Cowpea, NileVigna niloticaשְׁעוּעִיתlegumeKil. 1:1
CressLepidium latifoliumעֲדָלgarden vegetableUk. 3:4
Cress, gardenLepidium sativumשַׁחְלַיִםgarden vegetableMa'as. 4:5
Crocus, saffronCrocus sativusכַּרְכּוֹםplant used as a spice and for coloringSong 4:14; Nid. 2:6
Cucumber, bitterCitrullus colocynthisפַּקּוּעוֹתwild desert plantII Kings 4:39; Shab. 2:2
Cucumber, squirtingEcballium elateriumיְרוֹקַת הַחֲמוֹרwild herbOho. 8:1
CuminCuminum cyminumכַּמּוֹןherb whose seeds are used as a spiceIsa. 2:25, 27; Dem. 2:1
CypressCupressus sempervirensגֹּפֶרforest evergreen treeGen. 6:14
תְּאַשּׁוּרIsa. 41:19; 60:13, et al.
Daffodil, seaPancratium maritimumחֲבַצֶּלֶתfragrant wild flowerIsa. 35:1; Song 2:1
DarnelLolium temulentumזוּןweed grassKil. 1:1; Ter. 2:6
DillAnethum graveolensשֶׁבֶתplant used as a spicePe'ah 3:2; Ma'as. 4:5; Uk. 3:4
DurraSorghum cernuumדֹּחַןsummer cerealEzek. 4:9; Shev. 2:7
EbonyDiospyros ebenumהָבְנִיםtropical hard woodEzek. 27:15
EmmerTriticum dicoccumכֻּסֶּמֶתwinter cerealEx. 9:32; Isa. 28:25, et al.
EryngoEryngium creticumחַרְחֲבִינָאedible wild herbPes. 2:6
FennelFoeniculum vulgareגֻּפְנִיןherb used as a spiceDem. 1:1
Fennel flowerNigella sativaקֶצַחherb whose seeds are used as a spiceIsa. 28:25, 27; Eduy. 5:3
FenugreekTrigonella foenum-Graecumתִּלְתָּןcultivated legume used as forage or medicineKil. 2:5; Ter. 10:5
Fern, ceterachCeterach officinarumדַּנְדַּנָּהmedicinal fernShev. 7:1–2
Fern, maiden hairAdiantum capillus venerisיוֹעֶזֶרmedicinal fernShab. 14:3
FigFicus caricaתְּאֵנָהfruit treeNum. 20:5; Deut. 8:8, et al.
Fig, sycamoreFicus sycomorusשִׁקְמָהfruit treeI Kings 10:27; Isa. 9:9, et al.
FlaxLinum usitatissimumפִּשְׁתָּןherb whose stem yields fiberJosh. 2:6; Hos. 2:7; et al.
פִּשְׁתָּהand from whose seed oil is extractedPe'ah 6:5
FrankincenseBoswellia carteriלְבוֹנָהtree yielding aromatic resin used in incenseEx. 30:34; Isa. 60:6, et al.
GalbanumFerula galbanifluaחֶלְבְּנָהherb whose resin was used in incenseEx. 30:34
GarlicAllium sativumשׁוּםvegetable used as spiceNum. 11:5
Ginger, wildArum dioscoridisלוּף שׁוֹטֶהwild vegetableShev. 7:1, 2, et al.
Gourd, CalabashLagenaria vulgarisדְּלַעַתvegetable with edible fruitKil. 1:2; Ma'as. 1:5, et al.
Grape vineVitis viniferaגֶּפֶןfruit shrubGen. 40:9; Num. 20:5, et al.
GraspeaLathyrus sativusטֹפַחlegumePe'ah 5:3; Kil. 1:1, et al.
HawthornCrataegus azarolusעֻזְרָרwild fruit treeDem. 1:1; Kil. 1:4, et al.
HeliotropeHeliotropium europaeumעַקְרַבָּנִיןmedicinal wild herbShev. 7:2; Er. 2:7
Hemlock, poisonConium maculatumרוֹשׁ,רֹאשׁpoisonous herbDeut. 29:17; Hos. 10:4, et al.
HempCannabis sativaקַנְבּוֹסherb whose stem yields fiberKil. 5:8; 9:1, 7
HennaLawsonia albaכֹּפֶרshrub which yields a dyeSong. 1:14; 4:13, et al.
HyssopHyssopus officinalisאֵזוֹב כּוֹחֲלaromatic herbNeg. 14:6; Par. 11:7
(V. marjoram)
IrisIris germanicaאִירוּסplant whose bulb yields anKil. 5:8; Oho. 8:1
Iris pallidaaromatic substance
IvyHedera helixקִיסוֹסclimbing evergreen vineKil. 5:8; Suk. 1:4, et al.
JujubeZizyphus vulgarisשֵׁיזָפִיןfruit treeKil. 1:4
Jujube, wildZizyphus spina christiצֶאֱלִיםwild tree with edible fruitJob 40:21–22
רִימִיןDem. 1:1; Kil. 1:6
JuniperJuniperus exelsaבְּרוֹשׁconiferous tree of LebanonIsa. 14:8; 37:24, et al.
(savin high)בְּרוֹתSong. 1:17
KnotweedPolygonum aviculareאַבּוּב־רוֹעֶהmedicinal wild herbShab. 14:3
LaudanumCistus ladanumלֹטshrub yielding aromatic resinGen. 37:25; 43:11
LaurelLaurus nobilisאֹרֶןforest tree with aromatic leavesIsa. 44:14
Lavender ,Lavandula officinalisאֵזוֹבְיוֹןaromatic shrubShab. 14:3; Neg. 14:6, et al.
LeekAllium porrumחָצִירgarden herbNum. 11:5
כְּרֵישָׁהKil. 1:2; Shev. 7:1
כַּרְתִּיBer. 1:2; Suk. 3:6
Leek, wildAllium ampeloprasumכְּרֵישֵׁי שָׂדֶהwild herbKil. 1:2; Uk. 3:2
LentilLens esculentaעֲדָשִיםlegumeGen. 25:34; II Sam. 17:28, et al.
LettuceLactuca sativaחֲזֶרֶתgarden vegetableKil. 1:2; Pes. 2:6, et al.
Lettuce, wildLactuca scariolaחֲזֶרֶת גַּלִּיםwild vegetableKil. 1:2
Lily, madonnaLilium candidumשׁוֹשָׁן, שׁוֹשַׁנָּהaromatic flowerHos. 14:6; Song. 6:2–3, et al.
Lily, Solomon'sArum palaestinumלוּףwild vegetable with ediblePe'ah, 6:10; Kil. 2:5
(black calla)bulb
Love grassEragrostis bipinnataחִילָףweed used for making basketsKelim 17:17
LupineLupinus termisתֻּרְמוֹסlegumeKil. 1:3; Shab. 18:1, et al.
Lupine, yellowLupinus luteusפַּלְסְלוּסlegumeKil. 1:3
MadderRubia tinctorimפּוּאָהclimbing plant whose roots are used for dyeingShev. 5:4; 7:2, et al.
MandrakeMandragora officinarumדּוּדָאִיםwild herb with aromatic fruitGen. 30:14–16; Song. 7:14
Marjoram, SyrianMajorana syriacaאֵזוֹבaromatic wild plantEx. 12:22; Lev. 14:4, et al.
MasticPistacia lentiscusבָּכָא, בְּכָאִיםwild shrubII Sam. 5:23–24; Ps. 84:7
MelonCucumis meloמְלָפְפוֹןgarden vegetableKil. 1:2; Ter. 2:6, et al.
Melon, chateCucumis melo var. chateקִשּׁוּת, קִשֻּׁאִיםgarden vegetableNum. 11:5; Kil. 1:2, et al.
MilletPanicum miliaceumפְּרָגִיםsummer cerealḤal. 1:4; Shev. 2:7
MintMentha piperitaמִינְתָּאherb used as spiceUk. 1:2
MudarCalotropis proceraפְּתִילַת הַמִּדְבָּרwild shrub with fibrous fruitShab. 2:1
MulberryMorus nigraתּוּתfruit treeMa'as. 1:2
MushroomBoletus, etc.פִּטְרִיָּהgeneric name for the mushroom speciesUk. 3:2
Mustard, blackBrassica nigraחַרְדָּלwild herb whose seeds are used as a condimentKil. 1:2
Mustard, fieldSinapis arvensisלִפְסָןwild herbKil. 1:5
Mustard, whiteSinapis albaחַרְדָּל מצְרִיwild herb whose seeds are used as a condimentKil. 1:2
MyrrhCommiphora schimperiמוֹרtropical aromatic treeEx. 30:23; Song 1:13, et al.
Commiphora abyssinica
MyrtleMyrtus communisהֲדַסaromatic shrubIsa. 41:19; 55:13, et al.
עֵץ עָבֹתLev. 23:40; Neh. 8:15, et al.
NarcissusNarcissus tazetta(?)שׁוֹשַׁנַת הָעֲמָקִיםwild flowerSong 2:1
NardNardostachys jatamansiנֵרְדְּ, נְרָדִיםaromatic plantSong 1:12; 4:13–14, et al.
NettleUrtica sp.סִרְפָּדstinging wild weedIsa. 55:13
OakQuercus ithaburensisאַלּוֹןforest treeGen. 35:8; Isa. 2:13, et al.
Quercus calliprinos
Oak, gallQuercus infectoria (Boissieri)מֵילָהforest treeMid. 3:7
OleanderNerium oleanderהַרְדוֹפְנֵיriver bank evergreen shrubḤul. 3:5
OliveOlea europaeaזַיִתfruit treeDeut. 6:11; 8:8, et al.
OnionAllium cepaבָּצָלgarden vegetableNum. 11:5
Orange, trifoliatePoncirus trifoliataקִדָּה לְבָנָהtropical fruit treeKil. 1:8
OrchidOrchis sp.חַלְבְּצִיןflower with edible bulbShev. 7:2
נֵץ־הֶחָלָבShev. 7:1
Palm, datePhoenix dactyliferaתָּמָרfruit treeEx. 15:27; Num. 33:9, et al.
דֶּקֶלPe'ah 4:1; Shab. 14:3, et al.
PapyrusCyperus papyrusגֹּמֶאaquatic plantEx. 2:3; Isa. 18:2, et al.
PeachPersica vulgarisאֲפַרְסֵקfruit treeKil. 1:4; Ma'as. 1:2
PearPyrus communisאַגָּסfruit treeKil. 1:4; Uk. 1:6, et al.
Pear, SyrianPyrus syriacaחִזְרָרforest tree with edible fruitKil. 1:4
PepperPiper nigrumפִּלְפֵּלtropical aromatic plant used as a condimentShab. 6:5; Beẓah 2:8
PinePinus sp.(?)תִּדְהָרconiferous treeIsa. 41:19; 60:13
Pine, aleppoPinus halepensisעֵץ שֶׁמֶןconiferous forest treeI Kings 6:23; Isa. 41:19, et al.
Pine, stonePinus pineaתִּרְזָהconiferous tree with edible kernelsIsa. 44:14
PistachioPistacia veraבָּטְנָה, בָּטְנִיםfruit treeGen. 43:11; Shev. 7:5
PlanePlatanus orientalisעַרְמוֹןriver bank treeGen. 30:37; Ezek. 31:8
PomegranatePunica granatumרִמּוֹןfruit treeNum. 20:5; Deut. 8:8, et al.
PoplarPopulus euphraticaצַפְצָפָהriver bank treeEzek. 17:5
PurslanePortulaca oleraceaחֲלַגְלוֹגָהwild herb used as a vegetableShev. 9:1
רְגֵלָהShev. 7:1, 9:5, et al.
QuinceCydonia oblongaפָּרִישfruit treeKil. 1:4; Ma'as. 1:3, et al.
RadishRaphanus sativusצְנוֹןgarden vegetableKil. 1:5; Ma'as. 5:2, et al.
RapeBrassica napusנָפוּץ, נָפוּסgarden vegetable used as forageKil. 1:3; 1:5, et al.
Raspberry, wildRubus sanctusסְנֶהthorny climbing shrubEx. 3:2–4; Deut. 33:16
Reed, ditchPhragmites communisקָנֶהriver bank weedIsa. 19:6, 35:7, et al.
RiceOryza sativaאֹרֶזannual summer cereal grassDem. 2:1; Shev. 2:7, et al.
Rocket, dyer'sReseda luteolaרִכְפָּהherb whose leaves and stem yield a dyeMa'as. 5:8; Shev. 7:2
Rocket, gardenEruca sativaאֹרֹתmedicinal herbII Kings 4:39
RoseRosa, sp.וֶרֶדshrub with fragrant flowersShev. 7:6; Ma'as. 2:5, et al.
RueRuta graveolensפֵּיגָםshrub used as a spiceKil. 1:8; Shev. 9:1
SafflowerCarthamus tinctoriusחָרִיעherb used as a spice and forKil. 2:8; Uk. 3:5;
קוֹצָהdyeingShev. 7:1
SaltbushAtriplex halimusמַלּוּחַdesert shrubJob 30:4
SavorySatureja thymbraסִיאָהaromatic wild plantShev. 8:1; Ma'as. 3:9
SesameSesamum orientalisשֻׁמְשֹׁםplant used as a spice and yielding oilShev. 2:7; Ḥal. 1:4, et al.
ShallotAllium ascalonicumבְּצַלְצוּלgarden vegetable used for seasoningKil. 1:3
Sorrel, gardenRumex acetosaלְעוּנִיםgarden vegetableKil. 1:3
Spanish cherryMimusops balataפַּרְסָאָהtropical fruit treeShev. 5:1
SpeltTriticum speltaשִׁפּוֹןcerealKil. 1:1; Ḥal. 1:1, et al.
SquillUrginea maritimaחֲצוּבwild toxic onionKil. 1:8
StoraxStyrax officinalisלִבְנֶהforest treeGen. 30:37; Hos. 4:13
SumacRhus coriariaאוֹגforest tree with edible fruitPe'ah 1:5; Dem. 1:1, et al.
TamariskTamarix, sp.אֵשֶׁלdesert and saline treeGen. 21:33; I Sam. 22:6, et al.
עַרְעָרJer. 17:6; Ps. 102:18
TerebinthPistacia palaestinaאֵלָהforest treeGen. 35:4; Hos. 4:13, et al.
Pistacia atlantica
ThistleCentaurea, sp.רַּדְרַּדprickly herbGen. 3:18; Hos. 10:8
Thistle, goldenScolymus maculatusחוֹחַprickly herbHos. 9:6; Prov. 26:9, et al.
Thistle, silybumSilybum marianumקִמּוֹשׁprickly herbIsa. 34:13; Hos. 9:6, et al.
Thistle, sowSonchus oleraceusמָרוֹרbitter herbEx. 12:8; Lam. 3:15, et al.
ThornCalycotome villosaחָרוּלprickly shrubZeph. 2:9; Job 30:7, et al.
Thorn, camelAlhagi maurorumנַעֲצוּץprickly dwarf shrubIsa. 7:19; 55:13
Thorn, gundeliaGundelia tournefortiiגַּלְגַּלprickly herbIsa. 17:13; Ps. 83:14
Thorn, poteriumPoterium spinosumסִירִיםprickly dwarf shrubIsa. 34:13; Hos. 2:8, et al.
סִירָהPs. 58:10
Thorn, prosopisProsopis farcataנַהֲלֹלprickly dwarf shrubIsa. 7:19
ThymeThymus capitatusקוֹרָנִיתaromatic dwarf shrubShev. 8:1; Ma'as. 3:9
TragacanthAstragalus gummiferנְכאֹתdwarf shrub yielding aGen. 37:25; 43:11
Astragalus tragacanthafragrant resin
TruffleAscomycetes-Tuberaceaeשְׁמַרְקָעִיםedible subterranean fungusUk. 3:2
TurnipBrassica rapaלֶפֶתgarden vegetableKil. 1:3, 9, et al.
Vetch, bitterVicia erviliaכַּרְשִׁינָהlegumeTer. 11:9; Shab. 1:5, et al.
Vetch, FrenchVicia narbonensisסַפִּירlegumeKil. 1:1
WalnutJuglans regiaאֱגוֹזfruit treeSong 6:11
WatermelonCitrullus vulgarisאֲבַטִּיחַgarden vegetableNum. 11:5
Weed, ridolfiaRidololfia segetumבָּאְשָׁהweedJob 31:40
WheatTriticum durumcerealEx. 9:32; Deut. 8:8; et al.
Triticum vulgare
Triticum turgidumחִטָּה
WillowSalix, sp.עֲרָבָהriverbank treeLev. 23:40; Ps. 137:2, et al.
Woad, isatisIsatis tinctoriaאִסָּטִיסherb which yields a dyeKil. 2:5; Shev. 7:1, et al.
WormwoodArtemisia, sp.לַעֲנָהdesert dwarf shrubDeut. 29:17; Jer. 9:14, et al.


views updated Jun 11 2018

319. Plants

See also 5. AGRICULTURE ; 54. BOTANY ; 167. FLOWERS ; 188. GRASSES ; 241. LEAVES ; 302. ORGANISMS ; 401. TREES .

an inability to accommodate to acid soils. Cf. basophobia. acidophobic, adj.
a parasitic relationship between plants that has a destructive effect on one and no effect on the other.
the tendency of some plants to grow in a direction away from the sun.
the tendency of some plants to grow away from the earth and the pull of gravity. apogeotropic, adj.
the cultivation of plants in nutrient solutions, usually for commercial purposes. Cf. hydroponics. aquapontic, adj.
hydroponics. aquicultural, adj.
the measurement of the swelling and shrinking of parts of plants. auxographic, adj.
basophobia, basiphobia
an inability to accommodate to alkaline soils. Cf. acidophobia. basophobic, basiphobic, adj.
the study of the physiological processes of plants and animals. biodynamic, biodynamical, adj.
the study of the relation between structure and function in plants and animals. biostatical, adj.
the animal or plant life of a particular region.
a form of divination involving the examination of plants.
the description of plants belonging to the genus Carex.
the study of sedges. caricologist, n.
cecidiology, cecidology
Biology. the study of galls produced on trees and plants by fungi, insects, or mites. cecidiologist, cecidologist, n.
1. a diseased condition of plants in which green parts lose their color or turn yellowish.
2. the process by which floral parts of a plant turn into leaves. Also chloranthy. See also 122. DISEASE and ILLNESS .
the cultivation of citrus fruits, as lemons, oranges, etc. citriculturist, n.
a technique for making apparent to the eye the successive stages of plant growth. crescographic, adj.
the procedures involved in adapting plants for growth under surf conditions. cumaphytic, adj.
the apparent preference of some plants, as orchids, to grow in or near trees. dendrophilous, adj.
the study of microscopic single-celled algae. desmidiologist, n.
the capacity or tendency of some plants to adopt a position transverse to the line of force of an external stimulus. diatropic, adj.
the condition, in some flowering plants, in which the pistils and stamens mature at different times, thus preventing self-pollination. dichogamous, adj.
the transplanting of a plant to a new environment.
a form of mutualism in which one plant lives on the surface of another, as moss on a tree. epiphyte, n.
1. the process of growing plants away from the light to make them white and crisp, especially in vegetable gardening.
2. the condition of the plants grown in this manner. See also 122. DISEASE and ILLNESS .
a knot growing on the stem or root of a plant. See also 52. BONES .
a mania for plants and flowers.
a substance that kills fungi or retards the growth of spores.
the ability of certain plants to grow normally in solis having a high mineral salt content. halophyte, n. halophytic, adj.
an attraction or adaptation to sunlight, as the sunflower. heliophile, n. heliophilic, heliophilous, adj.
a tendency of certain plants to move in response to sunlight.
the tendency in some plant species to turn or grow toward sunlight. heliotrope, n. heliotropic, adj.
a person who collects or deals in herbs, especially for medicinal purposes. See also 54. BOTANY .
Obsolete, a herbalist.
a substance for destroying plants, especially weeds or other unwanted species; a weed-killer. herbicidal, adj.
abnormal development, especially increased size, in plants or animals, usually as a result of cross-breeding.
the ability of certain plants to grow naturally in water or in highly moist soils. hydrophyte, n. hydrophytic, adj.
the science of growing plants in specially prepared solutions instead of in soil. Cf. aquapontics. hydroponic, adj.
excessive growth of one part of a plant to the disadvantage or detriment of the plant as a whole. See also 51. BODY, HUMAN ; 368. SIZE . hypertrophic, hypertrophical, hypertrophous, adj.
an increase in growth in a lower part of a plant causing it to bend upward. hyponastic, adj.
Obsolete, any procedure for raising plants under other than natural conditions of growth.
the ability of certain plants to grow naturally in moderate but constant moisture. mesophyte, n. mesophytic, adj.
the worship of fungi, especially mushrooms.
the branch of horticulture that specializes in the cultivation of edible plants. olericultural, adj.
the capacity of some plants to thrive in the midst of copious rain. Also called hydrophily . ombrophilic, ombrophilous, adj.
a relationship between plants in which one gains sustenance from the other. See also 16. ANIMALS ; 44. BIOLOGY .
the state of having the pistils, stamens, petals, etc., arranged around a cuplike receptacle. perigynous, adj.
any chemical substance used for killing pests, as insects, weeds, etc.
Rare. a lover of plants.
the science or study of light in relation to the movement of plants. photodynamic, photodynamical, adj.
the tendency in certain plant species to respond to light by developing sufficient cellular force or growth on one side of an axis to change the form or position of the axis, as in the opening and closing of the flowers of four-oclocks. Cf. thermonasty. photonastic . adj.
the study of the relative amounts of light and darkness in a 24-hour period required to best effect the growth, reproduction, and flowering of plant species or the growth and reproduction of animals. Also photoperiodicity . Cf. thermoperiodism . photoperiodic, photoperiodical, adj.
photophilia, photophily
the necessity, in some plant species, for exposure to strong light. photophile, photophilic, photophilous, adj.
the synthesis of complex organic substances from carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic salts, with sunlight as the energy source and a catalyst such as chlorophyll. photosynthetic, adj.
motion in response to light, either toward it or away from it, as manifested by certain plants. phototropic, adj.
phytogenesis, phytogeny
the origin and evolution of plants. phytogenetic, phytogenetical, phytogenic, adj.
the identification, classification, and study of plant viruses. phytoserologist, n. phytoserologic, phytoserological, adj.
the tendency of some plants to diverge from the vertical in their growth. plagiotropic, adj.
the tendency of some plants to respond to a current of water by growing with it (positive rheotaxis) or against it (negative rheotaxis).
the ability of certain plants to live in dead or decaying organic matter. saprophyte, n. saprophytic, n., adj.
the hardening of the cell wall of a plant, as by the formation of wood. See also 51. BODY, HUMAN . sclerotic, adj.
selective breeding to develop strains with particular characteristics. stirpicultural, adj.
the art of divination by inspection of figs or flg leaves.
the tendency in certain plant species to respond to temperature changes by developing a sufficient cellular force or growth on one side of an axis to change the form or position of the axis, as in the closing or folding of rhododendron leaves in cold air. Cf. photonasty. thermonastic, adj.
the study of the relative day and night temperatures required, in a 24-hour period, to achieve the best growth, reproduction, or flowering of plant species or the growth and reproduction of animals. Also thermoperiodicity. Cf. photoperiodism . thermoperiodic, thermoperiodical, adj.
the tendency in some plant species to turn toward or away from a source of heat. thermotropic, thermotropical, adj.
cross-fertilization in plants or flowers.
xerophilia, xerophily
the ability of some plants to survive in dosert or salt marsh areas by storing fresh water internally. xerophilic, xerophilous, adj.
the natural adaptation of plants living under desert or marsh conditions to store water internally. xerophyte, n. xerophytic, adj.


views updated May 29 2018


A plant is a multicelled organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis. Although plants show a variety of form, function, and activity, all belong to the kingdom Plantae and generally are characterized by being immobile, or anchored, in soil, having strong woody tissues for support, and by being green and carrying on photosynthesis. Plants are essential to life on earth, especially human life, since they are at the beginning of the food chain and take in carbon dioxide (an atmospheric gas) and give off oxygen. Plants are also a source of medicine and useful materials. Botanists (people who study plants) have identified about 500,000 species of plants, although there are many undiscovered species yet to be classified.

The plant kingdom is one of the five main groupings of organisms; the four others being the monerans, protists, fungi, and animals. Although algae were long considered to be part of the plant kingdom, they are now regarded as being part of either the Moneran or Protista kingdom. Plants are found in virtually all land and water habitats and can range in size from tiny mosses to giant sequoia trees more than 300 feet (10.94 kilometers) tall. Whatever their size or habitat, all plants have the following characteristics: they are multicellular at some point in their life; they are eukaryotic (their cells have nuclei); they reproduce sexually (through the union of sperm and egg); they have chloroplasts (are the energy-converting structures) for photosynthesis; they have cell walls; they develop organs; and they have life cycles.


Although plants have all these things in common, scientists distinguish among the many different types of plants and classify plants as they do every other living thing. Therefore, in the kingdom Plantae, there are ten phyla or divisions of plants, each of which represents a number of classes, or more specific types. Most of these ten divisions can be grouped into five major types: seed plants, ferns, lycophytes, horsetails, and bryophytes.

Seed Plants. Seed plants are exactly what they sound like—plants that use seeds to reproduce. Plants that produce seeds that are enclosed in a protective case are called angiosperms. These include most of well-known plants like trees, wildflowers, and fruits and vegetables. Plants that produce seeds without any covering are called gymnosperms. Most gymnosperms produce their seeds in cones. Evergreens like firs and pine trees are a good example of gymnosperms.

Ferns. Ferns often vary greatly in size, but almost all grow in moist areas. Only their leaves, called fronds, grow above ground. The rest of the plant spreads out in stems that grow horizontally underground.

Lycophytes, Horsetails, and Bryophytes. Lycophytes are mostly mosses and have a single, central stem. Horsetails have tiny leaves and hollow, jointed stems that are scratchy. Bryophytes grow in shady areas and are a type of moss, but they do not have any vascular tissue or tubing that carries water throughout the plant. Sphagnum or peat moss is a good example of bryophytes.


Despite the many types and divisions of plants, most of the common plants reproduce in one of two ways, have the same basic parts, and make their food the same way. Since the seed plants make up the largest single group of plants (around 250,000 species) and is the one most familiar, they will serve as a good example for plant anatomy. Nearly all these plants have three major body parts: roots, stems, and leaves.

Roots. A plant's roots anchor it in the soil and provide the plant with what it needs to grow by absorbing water and minerals. This underground root system also places a major restriction on plants since they are unable to move about and must cope with changing conditions instead of moving away as an animal would. Some plants use their roots to store food for the aboveground part of the plant to use, such as radishes and carrots. Others, like potatoes, are examples of plants with tubers, or a swollen underground stem, in which food is stored. As a plant grows in size, its root system must expand not only to feed it more, but also to simply hold it upright.

There are two main types of root systems: taproots and fibrous systems. A taproot is a large main root that grows straight down and has smaller, lateral roots growing off it. Carrots and dandelions have taproots, as do trees which sometimes send down an anchor as far as 15 feet below ground. Fibrous roots are all the same size and spread out horizontally not very far beneath the surface. Grass, wheat, and corn have fibrous roots. As roots grow, the tip of each slender branch is protected by a root cap as it pushed through the soil. Behind the cap are threadlike tubes, or root hairs, that spread out and increase a plant's ability to absorb what it needs from the soil. Some water plants have roots that float, while other plants like orchids have roots that attach themselves to the branches of another plant or tree.

Stems. The stem is that part of a plant that supports the plant's buds, leaves, and flowers. Although stems vary greatly in size and type, they all connect the roots to the leaves by a network of pipelines, and they also hold up the part of the plant that needs to reach for sunlight. Some stems are short and green, like those of lettuce that appear to have no stem at all, while others are woody and large like the trunk of a tree. Almost all plants grow by putting out buds from different parts of their stems. Terminal buds grow near the end or apex of a stem, while lateral buds grow where a leaf joins a stem. Buds are specialized and may grow into new branches, leaves, or flowers. Stems are made of vascular tissue that serve as the plant's pipeline, or tubing system, that performs two functions: one system (made of vascular tissue called xylem) is used mainly for transporting material from the roots to the leaves, and the other (made of tissue called phloem) is used for moving material from the leaves to the roots or other parts of the plant. The stringy strands of celery that get caught between our teeth are a good examples of a plant's vascular tissue.

Leaves. The leaves of a plant are where the really important and amazing work is done—making food. This food-making process in which green leaves change inorganic raw materials into organic nutrients is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis involves a leaf's ability to trap light energy and convert it into chemical energy. As a solar collector, a leaf consists of a thin, flat blade that is attached to a stalk called a petiole. The blade is where photosynthesis takes place. The blade, also called the lamina, is made up of two layers of cells—the epidermis on the outer surface and the mesophyll on the inside—and is strengthened by a network of veins that also transport materials to and from the blade. The underside of a leaf has microscopic openings or pores called stomata (singular, stoma) that can open and close and allow oxygen to flow out and carbon dioxide to flow in. These pores also regulate the amount of water that a plant will lose.

Leaves are usually green because their cellular structures called chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll. It is chlorophyll that traps the Sun's energy and begins a four-step biochemical process of using carbon dioxide and water to produce a sugar called glucose and to release oxygen. The plant uses some of this food as fuel for itself, some to grow and repair, and some it stores. When a primary consumer eats a plant, it obtains the original light energy that was captured by the plant.

Leaves vary greatly in size and usually are arranged in definite patterns to make sure that each receives the most sunlight it can and does not shade its neighbor. Leaves also die during a process known as abscission (separation). As the days grow shorter in autumn, a layer of cells grows across the base of the petiole and stops the flow of food to it. This trapping of sugar in the leaf produces a bright red pigment called anthocyanin or a yellow pigment called carotene. In deciduous plants, all the leaves fall off at the same time, but in evergreen plants they are shed and replaced regularly, so the plant is never without leaves.


Plants reproduce either by sexual reproduction, in which a male sperm cell unites with a female egg cell to produce a unique individual plant, or by asexual reproduction, in which the plant divides itself up to produce an identical replica. A flower is the reproductive part of many plants, and it may contain the male or female reproductive structures or even both.

Flowers. Flowers have four main parts: the calyx, the corolla, the stamens, and the pistils. The calyx protects the petals (corolla), inside which are the stamens (the male reproductive part) and pistils (the female reproductive part). The purpose of a flower is to bring about pollination, which is the transfer of pollen (male sex cells) to the female parts. Insects, birds, bees, and even the wind play a role in pollination. When a pollen grain lands on a receptive pistil, fertilization takes place and an entirely new cell is formed that is the start of a seed. A seed containing an embryo of the new plant is often enclosed in something called a fruit.

Fruit. Whether fruit are hard and dry (like a walnut) or soft and juicy (like a raspberry), it is the plant's way of scattering its seeds as far as possible. Some fruit have burrs that cling to an animal's fur, while some fruit are capable of floating on water, and others can resist being digested as they pass through an animal's gut to be deposited somewhere else. By producing fruit that animals want to eat, plants are using animals to distribute their seeds and to make sure that they end up in a place where they may germinate or begin to grow. When conditions are right, the seed uses the water it receives and the food it has stored to send a root, or radicle, through its seed coat and into the soil, while a shoot (containing the beginnings of a stem, buds, leaves, and flowers) grows aboveground and toward the light. This begins a new plant.


Plants can also spread asexually, usually by sending up new aboveground plants from an existing root system. Grass and strawberries grow this way, as do tulips. Many plants with tubers, like a dandelion or potato, will regenerate into a new plant if only a piece is left in the ground.


Plants are basic to life on Earth. A world without plants would be a world humans could not recognize. Besides missing the beauty and pleasure that plants give, the world would be without any of the food the people and animals know and need. People would also be lacking the many medicines, shelter, and useful products that are based on plants. By capturing the energy of the Sun, plants make all other life on Earth possible.

[See alsoBotany; Photosynthesis; Plant Anatomy; Plant Hormones; Plant Pathology; Plant Reproduction; Reproduction, Asexual; Reproduction, Sexual ]


views updated Jun 08 2018


Plants are photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes, well-separated evolutionarily from photosynthetic prokaryotes such as the cyanobacteria . Three lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes are recognized: 1) green plants and green algae, with chlorophylls a and b and with carotenoids , including beta-carotene, as accessory pigments ; 2) red algae, having chlorophylls a and d, with phycobilins as accessory pigments; and 3) brown algae, golden algae, and diatoms , with chlorophylls a and c and accessory pigments that include fucoxanthin.

Plants are differentiated from algae based on their exclusive multicellularity and their adaption to life on land. However, these two groups are so closely related that defining their differences is often harder than identifying their similarities. Fungi, often considered to be plantlike and historically classified with plants, are not close relatives of plants; rather, they appear to be closely related to animals, based on numerous molecular and biochemical features. Fossil evidence indicates that plants first invaded the land approximately 450 million years ago. The major groups of living land plants are liverworts, hornworts, and mosses (collectively termed bryophytes); lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails (collectively pteridophytes); and five lineages of seed plants: cycads, Ginkgo, gnetophytes, conifers (gymnosperms), and flowering plants (angiosperms).

see also Algae; Anatomy of Plants; Angiosperms; Bryophytes; Endosymbiosis; Fungi; Gymnosperms; Pigments.

Doug Soltis

Pam Soltis


Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn. Biology of Plants, 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1999.