Gall (Sioux)

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gall1 / gôl/ • n. 1. bold, impudent behavior: the bank had the gall to demand a fee. 2. the contents of the gallbladder; bile (proverbial for its bitterness). ∎  an animal's gallbladder. ∎  used to refer to something bitter or cruel: accept life's gall without blaming somebody else. gall2 • n. 1. annoyance; irritation: he imagined Linda’s gall as she found herself still married and not rich. 2. (esp. of a horse) a sore on the skin made by chafing. • v. [tr.] 1. make (someone) feel annoyed: he knew he was losing, and it galled him. 2. make sore by rubbing: the straps galled their shoulders. gall3 • n. an abnormal growth formed on plants and trees, esp. oaks, in response to the presence of insect larvae, mites, or fungi. ∎  [as adj.] denoting insects or mites that produce such growths: gall flies.

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gall, abnormal growth, or hypertrophy, of plant tissue produced by chemical or mechanical (e.g., the rubbing together of two branches) irritants or hormones. Chemical irritants are released by parasitic fungi, bacteria, nematode worms, gall insects, and mites. Crown gall, which attacks peach and other fruit trees, grapes, and roses, is caused by bacteria. Despite its name (the crown is the head of foliage), the tumorous growths usually occur on the stem below ground level. The gall insects (e.g., certain aphids, wasps, moths, beetles, and midges) deposit their eggs in the plant tissues, which begin to swell as the larvae hatch. Sometimes the larvae feed on the gall and pupate within it. The irritant is released by the female at the time of oviposition or by the developing larva itself. Each species of gall insect has its favorite host and forms galls of a characteristic shape; some are large and woody and others may be soft, knobby, or spiny. They may be formed on any part of a plant but generally occur in areas where cells are actively growing. In the United States, Galls are commonly seen on oak and willow trees and on rose bushes, goldenrod, and witch hazel. The Hessian fly, the wheat midge, and the mites and midges that attack fruit trees are the most damaging economically of the gall insects. Galls are rich in resins and tannic acid and have been used in the manufacture of permanent inks and astringent ointments, in dyeing, and in tanning. A high-quality ink has long been made from the Aleppo gall, found on oaks in the Middle East; it is one of a number of galls resembling nuts and called gallnuts or nutgalls.

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gall (cecidium) An abnormal growth or swelling in a plant. The formation of a gall may be induced by infection of the plant with bacteria or fungi, or by attack from certain mites, nematodes, or insects. Galls may be formed on roots, stems, or leaves. Some galls (e.g. clubroot and crown gall) are symptoms of disease; others appear to do little harm to their hosts, while some may actually be beneficial to the plant (e.g. nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes). Galls are variously structured, ranging from a simple outgrowth to a large and histologically complex structure with up to 5 distinct tissue layers with nutritive zones. Most gall-forming species are members of the insect family Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), and often have complex, heterogynous life cycles, utilizing different parts of the same host or different hosts, which are generally Quercus species. The mechanism of gall initiation and development is little understood, and the study of galls offers an unparalleled opportunity for physiological and ecological research. The gall community supports a large number of parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, and inquilines (species which use the gall but do not kill its occupant).

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gallall, appal (US appall), awl, Bacall, ball, bawl, befall, Bengal, brawl, call, caul, crawl, Donegal, drawl, drywall, enthral (US enthrall), fall, forestall, gall, Galle, Gaul, hall, haul, maul, miaul, miscall, Montreal, Naipaul, Nepal, orle, pall, Paul, pawl, Saul, schorl, scrawl, seawall, Senegal, shawl, small, sprawl, squall, stall, stonewall, tall, thrall, trawl, wall, waul, wherewithal, withal, yawl •carryall • blackball • handball •patball • hardball • netball • baseball •paintball • speedball • heelball •meatball • stickball • pinball • spitball •racquetball • basketball • volleyball •eyeball, highball •oddball • softball • mothball •korfball • cornball •lowball, no-ball, snowball •goalball •cueball, screwball •goofball • stoolball • football •puffball • punchball • fireball •rollerball • cannonball • butterball •catchall • bradawl • holdall • Goodall

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Gall (gôl), c.1840–1894, war chief of the Sioux, b. South Dakota. He refused to accept the treaty of 1868 (by which he would have been confined to a reservation), joined Sitting Bull and other dissident chiefs, and was the chief military lieutenant of Sitting Bull in the great defeat of George Armstrong Custer in the battle of Little Bighorn in 1876. He retreated to Canada but, after a quarrel with Sitting Bull about returning to their former lands, returned and surrendered at Poplar, Mont. He became a farmer on the reservation and with his friend James McLaughlin, the Indian agent, did much to improve relations between Native Americans and whites.

See T. B. Marquis, Sitting Bull and Gall (1934).

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gall(cecidium) An abnormal growth or swelling in a plant. The formation of a gall may be induced by infection of the plant with bacteria or fungi, or by attack from certain mites, nematodes, or insects. Galls may be formed on roots, stems, or leaves. Some galls (e.g. clubroot and crown gall) are symptoms of disease; others appear to do little harm to their hosts, while some may actually be beneficial to the plant (e.g. nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes). Galls are variously structured, ranging from a simple outgrowth to a large and histologically complex structure with up to five distinct tissue layers with nutritive zones. Most gall-forming species are members of the insect family Cynipidae (Hymenoptera), and often have complex, heterogynous life cycles, utilizing different parts of the same host or different hosts, which are generally Quercus species. The mechanism of gall initiation and development is little understood, and the study of galls offers an unparalleled opportunity for physiological and ecological research. The gall community supports a large number of parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, and inquilines (species which use the gall but do not kill its occupant).

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gall (cecidium) An abnormal growth of a plant tissue or organ elicited by a foreign organism. Galls can take a wide variety of forms, but most frequently occur as swellings or pits in stems, roots, leaves, and buds. Organisms responsible for their formation include bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, mites, and insects. The gall structure can be quite complex, with several distinct cell layers, or relatively simple and undifferentiated, but is typically very distinct from surrounding normal tissue and often is characteristic of the eliciting organism. It can involve cell enlargement (hypertrophy) and/or cell proliferation (hyperplasia). The mechanisms underlying gall formation are known in only a few cases. The bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is responsible for crown galls, induces a genetic change in infected host tissue by transfer of a plasmid bearing tumour-forming genes. Insects may secrete substances in their saliva that induce gall formation, or in some cases may transmit viruses or other genetic carriers that affect the plant genome.

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gall1 bile; bitterness. XII. — ON. gall, corr. to OE. ġealla, OS., OHG. galla (Du. gal, G. galle) :- Gmc. *ʒallam, *ʒallan-, -ōn, f. IE. *ghol- *ghel- (repr. by Gr. kholé, L. fel bile); cf. YELLOW.

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gall2 swelling, pustule XIV; bare spot XVI. — MLG., MDu. galle (Du. gal), corr. to OE. ġealla sore on a horse, (M)HG. galle, ON. galli fault, flaw, perh. identical with prec.
Hence galled sore from chafing XIV (cf. OE. ġeallede); whence gall vb. chafe, fret XIV.

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gall bile; proverbial for its bitterness, and in biblical allusion associated with wormwood; the gall of bitterness is the extremity of bitterness.

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