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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Territorial Collectivity of St. Pierre and Miquelon
Region: North & Central America
Population: 6,896
Language(s): French
Literacy Rate: 99%


The archipelago, or island group, known as Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is an overseas territory of France located in the northern Atlantic Ocean about 16 miles from the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Residents are French citizens. Education is modeled after the traditional French system, it is free and compulsory for children between the ages of six and sixteen. The primary language of instruction is French. Most of the nation's private schools are run by the Roman Catholic church.

Primary education lasts for five years. In 1999, the number of preprimary and primary schools in operation totaled nine, five of which were private and four of which were public. Primary school students totaled 782. Secondary education is broken up into two cycles: a four-year program, followed by three additional years of study, successful completion of which results in the baccalaureat diploma. There are two secondary schools, one public and one private. Students in the second, or upper, level of their secondary studies may pursue one of three subject areas: scientific, literary, or economic and social. Upper secondary students may also opt to enroll in the Professional College for technical training. In 1999, secondary students totaled 703; of these, 172 were enrolled in the Professional College. Technical programs cover such topics as electronics, electrical engineering, joinery, woodworking, mechanics, and secretarial skills. Students at the Professional College work towards one of two Certificats d'Aptitude Professionnelle, one of six Brevets d'Etudes Professionnelles, or one of two Baccalaureats Professionnels. Scholarships are available to qualified students wishing to seek a higher degree in France.


Bibliography

"Saint-Pierre and Miquelon." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corp., 2001. Available from http://encarta.msn.com.

"Systeme educatif." Paris: Ministere Education Nationale, 2001. Available from http://209.205.50.254.

Vie Pratique. Paris: Secretariat d'Etat a l'outre-mer, 2000. Available from http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr.


AnnaMarie L. Sheldon

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and miquelon

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Territorial Collectivity of St. Pierre and Miquelon
Region (Map name): North & Central America
Population: 6,896
Language(s): French
Literacy rate: 99%

First settled by the French in the early seventeenth century, the two islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located in the North Atlantic Ocean south of Canada's Newfoundland, represent the last vestige of France's North American empire, which once stretched as far south as Louisiana. It is a self-governing territorial collectivity of France and, as such, the official language is French. Its population is approximately 7,000, and the literacy rate is 99 percent. The French president is the chief of state, represented locally by a Prefect. Heading the government is a President of the General Council, who presides over a unicameral, 19-seat General Council. The economy is driven by fishing, but disputes with Canada over fishing quotas are contributing to the decline of this industry. The government is trying to expand its tourism industry to provide more income to the country.

As a territory of France, the media of Saint Pierre and Miquelon enjoys freedom of press and speech. There is no daily newspaper; L'Echo des Caps is a municipal weekly magazine founded in 1982 to cover local policy, history, business, and sports. An Internet publication, L'Echo de I'Internet, appears online occasionally.

There are five radio stations, one AM and four FM, serving 4,000 radios. There are 4,000 televisions on the island but no major television stations. There is one Internet service provider.

Bibliography

"Country Profile," CIA World Fact Book (2001). Available from http://www.odci.gov.

"Pictures and the Local Media," St. Pierre et Miquelon (n.d.). Available from http://www.st-pierre-etmiquelon.com.

Jenny B. Davis

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon (săN pyĕr, mēkəlôN´), French territorial collectivity (2005 est. pop. 7,000), 93 sq mi (241 sq km), consisting of nine small islands S of Newfoundland, Canada, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The capital is Saint Pierre on the island of the same name. Miquelon (83 sq mi/215 sq km) is the largest island. Most of the population live in or near the capital and earn their living by fishing. The islands are barren, rocky, and often fogbound, but their proximity to the Grand Banks makes them a valuable base for fishermen. Fish processing and the servicing of fishing fleets are the main industries. There is some tourism. In April and October, Norman and Breton fishermen come from France to fish. There is a 19-seat legislature, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect one representative to the French Senate and one to the French National Assembly. A thirty-year boundary dispute between France and Canada over offshore fishing rights was resolved in 1992. The French zone consists of waters within a 24-mi (38.6-km) limit of the two islands and also includes a 10.5-mi-wide (16.9-km) corridor leading south 200 mi (322 km) to international waters.

History

Probably first settled by Basques, the islands were colonized by France in 1604. They were taken by the British (1713) but returned to France in 1763; twice retaken by the British, they were restored to France in 1814, with the provision that they be unfortified. They were granted local autonomy in 1935, became an overseas department in 1976, and reclassified as a territorial collectivity in 1985 to comply with European Community (now European Union) trade regulations.

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St Pierre and Miquelon

St Pierre and Miquelon Group of eight small islands in the Gulf of St Lawrence, sw of Newfoundland, Canada. The capital is St Pierre (1999 pop. 5618) on the island of the same name; Miquelon is the largest island. The group was claimed for France in 1535, and since 1985 has been a ‘territorial collectivity’, sending delegates to the French parliament. Fishing is the most important activity, and has led to disputes with Canada. Area: 242sq km (93sq mi). Pop. (1999) 6316.

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