A municipality was erected under Bishop Robert around 1140. In 1412–13 Bishop Wardlaw and Pope Benedict XIII incorporated and chartered St Andrews University, the nation's first. An important medieval town, and from 1472 the seat of an archbishop, St Andrews was a cockpit of the Reformation. John Knox retired there, while Andrew Melville, father of Scots presbyterianism and bane of King James VI and I, was head of St Mary's College. Still the university of Scotland's aristocracy in the 17th cent., it declined in the 18th due to Jacobite associations, reviving in the 20th. Uniquely good golfing facilities helped the town to become a residential and resort centre from the mid-19th cent.
Bruce Philip Lenman
Saint Andrews, town (1991 pop. 11,302), Fife, E Scotland, on the North Sea. A summer resort, it is famous for its golf courses. It was the seat of an archbishop from 908 and the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland until the Reformation. St. Andrews Cathedral, the largest in Scotland, but now a ruin, was founded in 1160 and plundered by Protestants in 1559. At St. Andrews the Protestant reformers Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart were burned. Protestants, among them John Knox, seized the bishop's palace (now also a ruin) in 1546 and held it for a year against siege by the French forces of Mary of Guise. The Univ. of St. Andrews, which dates from 1410, is the oldest in Scotland. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club is there.