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Carlow (county, Republic of Ireland)

Carlow (kär´lō), county (1991 pop. 40,942), 346 sq mi (896 sq km), SE Republic of Ireland. The chief towns are Carlow, the county seat; Bagenalstown, on the Barrow River, which forms much of the western boundary of the county; and Tullow, on the Slaney River which crosses the county from north to south. The granitic uplands of the Blackstairs Mts. in the southeast are a conspicuous feature in an otherwise fertile lowland region. Grain and sugar-beet farming, cattle raising, and dairying are regional occupations. There are also flour-milling, malting, and sugar-refining industries. The trains from Dublin to Kilkenny and Waterford travel through Carlow. Organized as a county in the early 13th cent., Carlow was strategically situated on the southern edge of the English Pale. In the 13th cent. it had palatinate privileges.

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Carlow (city, Republic of Ireland)

Carlow, town (1991 pop. 14,027), seat of Co. Carlow, SE Republic of Ireland, on the Barrow River. It is an agricultural market in a dairy region, with sugar refining, flour milling, brewing, and shoe manufacturing. There are ruins of a 12th-century castle. The town is also the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Kildare and Leighlin. Of strategic importance, Carlow was burned in 1405 and in 1577. In 1798 a fierce street battle was fought there by insurgent United Irishmen. St. Patrick's College for priests opened in 1798.

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