views updated May 21 2018

60. Battle (See also War.)

  1. Actium Octavians naval defeat of Antony and Cleopatra (31 B.C.). [Rom. Hist.: NCE, 15]
  2. Agincourt longbow helps British defeat French (1415). [Br. Lit.: Henry V; Br. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 5]
  3. Alamo fort at San Antonio that was site of Mexican massacre of Texans (1836). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 8]
  4. Antietam indecisive battle of the Civil War (1862). [Am. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 15]
  5. Arbela Alexanders rout of Darius (331 B.C.). [Classical Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 17]
  6. Armageddon final battle between forces of good and evil. [N.T.: Revelation 16:16]
  7. Austerlitz Napoleons brilliant success over Austro-Russian coalition (1805). [Fr. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 2324]
  8. Balaclava fought between Russians and British during Crimean War (1854). [Russ. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 2526]
  9. Battle of the Bulge unsuccessful attempt by Germans to push Allies back from German territory (19441945). [Ger. Hist.: EB, II: 360361]
  10. Belleau Wood locale of significant American triumph in WWI (1918). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 47]
  11. Bhagavad-Gita Sanskrit epic relates the great fratricidal battle between two noble families. [Hindu Lit.: Bhagavad-Gita in Benét, 103]
  12. Bull Run site of two important battles of the Civil War (1861) (1862). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 68]
  13. Bunker Hill Dont shoot until you see the whites of their eyes; American Revolutionary battle (1775). [Am. Hist.: Worth, 22]
  14. Cannae perhaps Hannibals greatest victory (216 B.C.). [Rom. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 48]
  15. Coral Sea first naval engagement exclusively involving planes versus ships (1942). [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 488]
  16. Crécy English over French; preeminence of longbow established (1346). [Fr. Hist.: Bishop, 382385]
  17. Fort Sumter site of opening blow of Civil War (1861). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 486487]
  18. Gettysburg site of Pyrrhic victory for North in Civil War (1863). [Am. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 97]
  19. Guadalcanal Marines triumphed in first major U.S. offensive of WWII (19421943). [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 490]
  20. Hastings battle that determined the Norman Conquest of England (1066). [Br. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 107]
  21. Iwo Jima inspiring American triumph in the Pacific (1945). [Am. Hist.: Leonard, 472480]
  22. Jutland established British WWI naval supremacy (1916). [Br. Hist.: EB, 19: 954955]
  23. Lexington opening engagement of the American Revolution (1775). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 283]
  24. Lindisfarne object of first major Viking raid in Britain (792). [Br. Hist.: Grun, 86]
  25. Lucknow Indian mutiny put down by British (1858). [Ind. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 143]
  26. Marathon plain near Athens where Greeks defeated Persians in 490 B.C. [Gk. Hist.: Benét, 633]
  27. Midway site of decisive battle between Japanese and Americans in WWII (1942). [Am. Hist.: EB, VI: 877878]
  28. Mount Badon here Arthur soundly defeated the Saxons (c. 520). [Arthurian Legend: Benét, 72]
  29. New Orléans end of War of 1812; fought after treaty had been signed (1815). [Am. Hist.: Worth, 22]
  30. Normandy Invasion Allied invasion of Europe during WWII; D-Day (June 6, 1944). [Eur. Hist.: EB, VII: 391]
  31. Okinawa scene of American amphibian operations during WWII (1945). [Am. Hist.: EB, VII: 505]
  32. Orléans Joan of Arcs inspired triumph over English (1429). [Fr. Hist.: Bishop, 392]
  33. Pearl Harbor site of Japanese surprise attack (December 7, 1941). [Am. Hist.: EB, VII: 822]
  34. Plains of Abraham English victory decided last of French and Indian wars (1759). [Br. Hist.: NCE, 7]
  35. Ravenna site of battle between Byzantines and an Italian force under Pope Gregory II. Byzantines were routed (729). [Gk. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 207]
  36. Salamis Xerxes horde repulsed by numerically inferior Greek navy (480 B.C.). [Class. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 219]
  37. Samarkand Arabs defeated Chinese (751); adopted some of Chinese technology and culture. [Chinese Hist.: Grun, 78]
  38. Saratoga (Stillwater ) fought between Americans and British during Revolution (1777). [Am. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 237238]
  39. Sedan decisive battle of the Franco-German War (1870). [Fr. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 225]
  40. Stalingrad unsuccessful German assault on Stalingrad, Russia (19421943). [Ger. Hist.: EB, IX: 517]
  41. Thermopylae 300 Spartans hold off Xerxes horde (480 B.C.). [Classical Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 248]
  42. Trafalgar defeat of French and Spanish; zenith of British naval history (1805). [Br. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 252253]
  43. Trenton Washingtons brilliant surprise attack galvanized American morale (1776). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 508]
  44. Valmy battle fought between French and Prussians (1792). [Eur. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 259]
  45. Verdun site of numerous battles. [Fr. Hist.: EB, X: 395]
  46. Vicksburg city held by Confederates; besieged several times (1862, 1863). [Am. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 261262]
  47. Waterloo site of Napoleons defeat (1815). [Fr. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 266]
  48. Yorktown site of American victory over British, ending Revolutionary War (1781). [Am. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 271]


views updated May 18 2018

bat·tle / ˈbatl/ • n. a sustained fight between large, organized armed forces. ∎  a lengthy and difficult conflict or struggle: the battle over the future shape of Europe the battle against aging.• v. fight or struggle tenaciously to achieve or resist something: he has been battling against the illness.PHRASES: battle royal (pl. battles royal) a fiercely contested fight or dispute: there promises to be a battle royal between the two companies.battle stations the positions taken by military personnel in preparation for battle (often used as a command or signal to prepare for battle).half the battle an important step toward achieving something: he never gives in, and that's half the battle.DERIVATIVES: bat·tler n.


views updated May 14 2018

battle Battle Abbey an abbey founded by William the Conqueror near the site of the Battle of Hastings, in fulfilment of his vow before the battle that he would build an abbey if he achieved victory. The church was consecrated in 1094.
Battle Hymn of the Republic the title of Julia Ward Howe's poem, which became one of the most popular songs of the Union forces during the American Civil War, is said to have been suggested to her by the editor of the Atlantic Monthly, J. T. Fields, when both were visiting the Union troops in 1861. The ‘Battle Hymn’ was first published in the Atlantic Monthly in February, 1862.

See also Battle of Britain, Battle of the Bulge.


views updated May 17 2018

battle sb. XIII. ME. bataile — (O)F. bataille ( = It. battaglia, etc.) :- Rom. *battālia, for late L. battuālia (n. pl.), military or gladiatorial exercises, f. battuere beat.
So battle vb; XIV.