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Gunasthāna. Fourteen stages of Jain progress toward emancipation of the jīva (cf. the Eightfold Path of Buddhism, aṣṭangika-mārga): (i) mithyātva, having wrong belief; (ii) sāśadana, tending to right belief, but prone to backsliding; (iii) miśra, having a mixture of right and wrong belief; (iv) avirata saṃyaktva, having right belief but not acting upon it with a commitment through vows; (v) deśa-vrata, taking some vows; (vi) pramatta-vrata, taking all vows but impeded, e.g. by illness, from keeping them; (vii) apramatta-vrata, unimpeded vow-keeping; (viii) apūrva-karaṇa, new thought activity begins; (ix) nirvṛtti-karaṇa, is extended; (x) sūkṣama-sāmparyāya, only a residue of delusion remains; (xi) upaśānta-moha, delusion has subsided; (xii) kṣīna-moha, delusion is destroyed; (xiii) sayoga-kevalī, the jīva is omniscient in its last body; (xiv) ayoga-kevalī, the jīva passes through a brief stage of non-interactive omniscience, before its complete emancipation from karma.

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Capital of Adana province, Turkey.

Adana is the leading cotton-, cotton-textile-, and citrus-producing region of Turkey. Known since Hittite times, it was a minor town until the U.S. Civil War (18611865), when worldwide cotton shortages induced a boom in Adana's region. Nearby Incirlik Air Base is the largest NATO facility in the eastern Mediterranean. Adana, Turkey's fourth-largest city, had a 2002 population of 1.7 million.

see also cotton.

John R. Clark