All Sources -
Updated Media sources (1) About content Print Topic Share Topic
views updated

Gunasthāna. Fourteen stages of Jain progress toward emancipation of the jīva (cf. the Eightfold Path of Buddhism, aṣṭangika-mārga): (i) mithyātva, having wrong belief; (ii) sāśadana, tending to right belief, but prone to backsliding; (iii) miśra, having a mixture of right and wrong belief; (iv) avirata saṃyaktva, having right belief but not acting upon it with a commitment through vows; (v) deśa-vrata, taking some vows; (vi) pramatta-vrata, taking all vows but impeded, e.g. by illness, from keeping them; (vii) apramatta-vrata, unimpeded vow-keeping; (viii) apūrva-karaṇa, new thought activity begins; (ix) nirvṛtti-karaṇa, is extended; (x) sūkṣama-sāmparyāya, only a residue of delusion remains; (xi) upaśānta-moha, delusion has subsided; (xii) kṣīna-moha, delusion is destroyed; (xiii) sayoga-kevalī, the jīva is omniscient in its last body; (xiv) ayoga-kevalī, the jīva passes through a brief stage of non-interactive omniscience, before its complete emancipation from karma.

views updated


Capital of Adana province, Turkey.

Adana is the leading cotton-, cotton-textile-, and citrus-producing region of Turkey. Known since Hittite times, it was a minor town until the U.S. Civil War (18611865), when worldwide cotton shortages induced a boom in Adana's region. Nearby Incirlik Air Base is the largest NATO facility in the eastern Mediterranean. Adana, Turkey's fourth-largest city, had a 2002 population of 1.7 million.

see also cotton.

John R. Clark

views updated

Adana (ä´dənä), city (1990 pop. 931,555), capital of Adana prov., S Turkey, on the Seyhan River. The fourth largest city in Turkey, it is the commercial center of a farm region where cotton, grains, and fruits are grown. Manufactures include processed food, tobacco, cotton textiles, machinery, cement, and soap. The city is a road and rail center. An ancient city probably founded by the Hittites, Adana was colonized (66 BC) by the Romans. It prospered under the Romans and then declined. The city was revived (c.AD 782) by Harun ar-Rashid. In the 16th cent. the city passed to the Ottoman Turks. Nearby is Karatepe, a Hittite archaeological site. Çukurova Univ. is in Adana.