Uttar Pradesh State in n India, bordering Nepal and Tibet; the capital is Lucknow. The heartland of early Hindu civilization, it is the hub of India's Hindi-speaking region and is by far the most populous Indian state. The region has the foothills of the Himalayas to the n and hills in the s, enclosing a low-lying plain drained by the Ganges and its tributaries. The economy is based on agriculture, mainly cereals, sugar cane, rice and pulses, and the mining of coal, copper, bauxite and limestone. Industries: cotton and sugar processing. In 2000 the state of Uttaranchal was created out of part of Uttar Pradesh. Area: 240,928sq km (93,022sq mi). Pop. (2001) 166,052,859.
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