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Manas

Manas (Skt., ‘mind’). In Skt. literature, the mind, the co-ordinating organ of intelligence, thought, understanding, perception, and will. In Vedic times manas meant the individual spirit and the basis of speech (vāc). In the Upaniṣadic period manas is variously treated: sometimes it is closely associated with speech and breath as a triple entity, sometimes considered more as the intermediate link between the Self, ātman, and the senses.

In the darśanas, manas is seen as a special additional sense organ by which thoughts and sensations have access to the ātman. In Sāṃkhya philosophy, the principle (tattva) of manas together with intellect (buddhi) and ego (ahaṃkāra) makes up a threefold ‘inner instrument’ (antaḥkarana).

In Buddhist psychology, manas is the rational or intellectual faculty of the mind. In the Pāli canon it is said to be synonymous with citta and vijñãna (2).

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Manas

Manas (mänäs´), town and oasis, central Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, on the Manas River, in the Dzungarian basin. It is the center of a large mechanized-farm area. Wheat, millet, sugar beets, melons, and cotton are grown. Since 1952 an extensive irrigation project, directed by the Chinese army, has reclaimed much acreage for cultivation. Oil deposits are in the area. The name sometimes appears as Ma-na-ssu.

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