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excommunication

excommunication, formal expulsion from a religious body, the most grave of all ecclesiastical censures. Where religious and social communities are nearly identical it is attended by social ostracism, as in the case of Baruch Spinoza, excommunicated by the Jews. In Christianity the Roman Catholic Church especially retains excommunication; the church maintains that the spiritual separation of the offender from the body of the faithful takes place by the nature of the act when the offense is committed, and the decree of excommunication (or anathema) is a warning and formal proclamation of exclusion from Christian society. Those who die excommunicate are not publicly prayed for; but excommunication is not equivalent to damnation. Excommunications vary in gravity, and in grave cases readmission may be possible only by action of the Holy See. Excommunicates are always free to return to the church on repentance. Protestant churches have generally abandoned excommunication.

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excommunicate

ex·com·mu·ni·cate • v. / ˌekskəˈmyoōniˌkāt/ [tr.] officially exclude (someone) from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church. • n. / ˌekskəˈmyoōniˌkit/ an excommunicated person. DERIVATIVES: ex·com·mu·ni·ca·tion / ˌekskəˌmyoōniˈkāshən/ n. ex·com·mu·ni·ca·tive / -ˌkātiv/ adj. ex·com·mu·ni·ca·tor / -ˌkātər/ n. ex·com·mu·ni·ca·to·ry / -kəˌtôrē/ adj.

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Excommunication

Excommunication. A censure imposed by the Christian Church which deprives a person of the right to administer or receive the sacraments or to hold office in the church.

The term is then applied to the process of expelling members from the, or a, community in other religions—e.g. the expulsion of a member of the Buddhist saṅgha (monastic community) if he has committed one of the four offences which are known as pārājika (involving defeat): sexual misconduct, theft, murder, boasting of supernatural powers. See also (in Judaism) ḤEREM.

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excommunication

excommunication Formal expulsion from the communion of the faithful, from sacraments and from rites of a religious body. Largely abandoned by Protestants, excommunication has been retained by Jewish congregations and by the Roman Catholic Church. In the days when the Church held great temporal (as well as spiritual) authority, excommunication was a severe punishment for heresy or blasphemy.

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excommunicate

excommunicate officially exclude someone from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church. The word is recorded from late Middle English, and comes from ecclesiastical Latin excommunicat- ‘excluded from communication with the faithful’.

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excommunicate

excommunicate XV. f. pp. stem of ecclL. excommūnicāre, f. EX-1 + commūnis COMMON, after commūnicāre COMMUNICATE.
So excommunication XV. — late L.

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excommunicate

excommunicate •defalcate • demarcate • cheapskate •eradicate • abdicate •dedicate, medicate, predicate •indicate, syndicate, vindicate •adjudicate • defecate •certificate, pontificate •confiscate • replicate • explicate •spifflicate • triplicate • implicate •complicate •duplicate, quadruplicate, quintuplicate •supplicate • fornicate •communicate, excommunicate, intercommunicate, tunicate •divaricate, prevaricate •fabricate • deprecate • metricate •extricate •lubricate, rubricate •desiccate • intoxicate • masticate •authenticate • domesticate •sophisticate • prognosticate •rusticate • hypothecate • manducate •educate • obfuscate • inculcate •bifurcate • suffocate • allocate •dislocate • reciprocate • coruscate •altercate • advocate • equivocate •furcate

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