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liturgy, Jewish

Jewish liturgy, rites, observances, and procedures of Judaism. Communal prayer, with a quorum of ten men (or in some modern communities, ten people), replaced the priests of the Temple cult. There are three daily services, with additional ones for the Sabbath and festivals. The fixed components are the Amidah (the 18 blessings), the Sh'ma (Hear, O Israel), the Kaddish (doxology), Pesukei d'Zimra (psalms for the morning prayer), and Hallel (Psalms 113–118) on festivals. In addition, there is a reading of portions of the Pentateuch and of the Prophets on the Sabbath and on festivals. Additional liturgical elements, such as hymns, vary with the different Jewish communities. The daily order of service is found in the siddur (daily prayerbook). The holiday prayerbook is called the mahzor. The Jewish liturgy is traditionally in Hebrew, with a few elements in Aramaic. Modern Reform, and some Conservative, movements also include prayer in the vernacular.

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ʿAmidah

ʿAmidah (Heb., ‘standing’). A Jewish prayer consisting of eighteen benedictions which is a core part of the structure of each of the three daily services. It is also known as the Shemoneh-Esreh (‘eighteen’) or, in Talmudic sources, as ha-tefillah (‘the prayer’). It is said standing (facing in the direction of Jerusalem), and is recited in different forms on weekdays, Sabbaths, and festivals.

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Amidah

Amidah a prayer, part of the Jewish liturgy, consisting of a varying number of blessings recited while the worshippers stand. The word is recorded from the late 19th century and comes from Hebrew, literally ‘standing’.

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Cantillation

Cantillation. The musical reading of the Jewish Bible, Talmud, or other liturgical passages. There is no scholarly agreement over the cantillation of Jewish liturgy.

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cantillation

cantillation. Chanting in free rhythm, in plainsong style. The term is most used in connection with Jewish liturgical mus.

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