Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER
Since the middle of the sixteenth century, The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) has served as the title of an entire family of books that contain the authorized canonical rites for each province of the Anglican Communion. The title originated in the Church of England, but was applied to later adaptations of the English BCP as autonomous provinces emerged with the expansion of Anglicanism around the world. For the first four hundred years of its development, the various versions of the BCP depended heavily upon the English sources. However, more recent versions, beginning in the middle of the twentieth century, contain newer liturgical materials reflecting the increased ethnic diversity of the Anglican Communion and an increased ecumenical consensus with regard to common liturgical texts.
The source editions of the BCP were issued in England during the reign of King Edward VI, namely, the books of 1549 and 1552 that were imposed upon the English Church by parliamentary Acts of Uniformity. These two books were primarily the work of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1533 to 1556. Cranmer took as his primary source the medieval Sarum Use, the Latin Rite as it was celebrated in the majority of English dioceses during the late Middle Ages. Other sources were the Greek liturgies of Basil the Great and John Chrysostom, medieval Gallican rites, and early forms of the Lutheran Church Orders. In his development of the Anglican Offices of Morning and Evening Prayer, perhaps his greatest work, Cranmer was influenced by the breviary published in 1535 by Cardinal Francisco de Quinones.
The first Book of Common Prayer (1549) was a conservative adaptation of the old Latin rite, but with pressure from more radical reformers, and in conformity with his own developing theological convictions, Cranmer imparted to the second Book (1552) a more decidedly Protestant emphasis, especially in his reconstruction of the Holy Communion rite and in the elimination of many traditional ceremonies. Queen Mary proscribed the Prayer Book on her accession in 1553, but a new Act of Uniformity in 1559, under Elizabeth I, restored the 1552 Prayer Book, albeit with certain modifications that made it more patient of a Catholic interpretation of the Real Presence in the Eucharist. During the Commonwealth (1645–60) public use of the Prayer Book was again forbidden, but following the restoration of the monarchy and episcopacy in 1660, the Prayer Book was revised, after unsuccessful attempts in conference to win dissident Puritan and Presbyterian groups to accept it, and issued under a new Act of Uniformity in 1662.
The BCP of 1662 has continued as the officially authorized book until the present time, but just as local provincial adaptations of the book began to take into account the growth of liturgical knowledge, so also in England there was increasing demand for Prayer Book reform. The proposed revision of 1928–29 was not approved by Parliament, but nevertheless had considerable influence upon worship in the Church of England.
In the latter half of the twentieth-century, significant changes in the texts written by or adapted from Archbishop Cranmer came to be incorporated in Prayer Book revisions in various provinces of the Anglican Communion. Among those revisions, the BCP of the American Church was issued in 1979 and replaced the earlier book of 1928, The Alternative Service Book (ASB) was approved in England for use in tendem with the BCP of 1662, and in Canada The Book of Alternative Services was published in 1985 with the intention that it would not replace the earlier book of 1962. Beginning in Advent 2000, the ASB was superseded by Common Worship, a consolidation and revision of the ASB, together with specially commissioned material. All thhese books continued to embod a respectful priority to the classical texts of Cranmer.
The most innovative departure thus far from the inherited sources is A New Zealand Prayer Book (He Karakia Mihinare o Aotearoa), authorized for use in the Province of New Zealand in 1989. Not only does this book include a substantial quantity of new ritual material, but it also offers parallel texts in the Maori language in many parts of the book. In spite of the fact that this book is only canonically authorized for use in New Zealand, its experimental character and directness of style have commended it for use in many parts of the Anglican Communion.
The particular genius of the BCP tradition is that each version contains in one volume all the fundamental ritual texts and sacramental rites for the public worship in Anglican communities. Thus, in one volume both laity and clergy have the texts needed for Morning and Evening Prayer, for the Eucharist, for particular ministrations of priests— such as rites for baptism and marriage, penance and reconciliation, rites for the sick, and the rites of Christian burial—, and for the particular ministrations of bishops, such as ordinations and the Consecration of Churches.
The Prayer Book has served as an important symbol of Anglican unity, and so when local provinces began to move beyond the Cranmerian texts, this was frequently met with anxiety about the erosion of this unity. By the time of the Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops in 1958, it was generally recognized that liturgical unity did not so much require identical texts as it did a common structure, especially for the eucharistic rite. In the decades since that time, it has become increasingly common
at major Anglican liturgical celebrations to embrace the ethnic and ritual diversity of the Communion as a providential development in its history.
Bibliography: f. e. brightman, The English Rite, 2 v. (London 1915). g. j. cuming, A History of Anglican Liturgy, 2nd. ed. (London 1982). m. j. hatchett, Commentary on the American Prayer Book (New York 1980). p. v. marshall, Prayer Book Parallels, 2 v. (New York 1989). r. a. meyers, A Prayer Book for the 21st. Century (Liturgical Studies Three; New York 1996). c. p. price &l. weil, Liturgy for Living, Revised edition (Harrisburg, PA 2000). m. h. shepherd, The Oxford American Prayer Book Commentary (New York 1950).
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Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer, understood as a unifying symbol of Anglican tradition and worship, represents a common core of worship services, patterns, and language that draws on the traditions of early Christianity and holds together diverse perspectives within the U.S. Episcopal Church.
The prayer book traces its history to England, following Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church in 1531. The first English-language version, published in 1549, contained the official prayer services, communion, and sacramental rites of the Church of England. Subsequent revisions reflected struggles among Puritan, Reform, and Catholic factions and the influences they sought to exert on the church, as well as political and religious interests of the throne.
With the U.S. Episcopal Church's emergence following the Revolutionary War, severed from its Church of England roots, an Americanized version of the Book of Common Prayer was adopted in 1789, although with a distinct Scottish influence that reflected the strong ties the new denomination had formed with the Episcopal Church of Scotland. The new prayer book also was influenced by Anglican clergyman John Wesley's revised services for American Methodists, and the revised liturgy adopted by the independent King's Chapel in Boston.
The U.S. Book of Common Prayer underwent revision in 1892 and 1928. Yet the mid-twentieth century's growing interest in ecumenism, liturgy, and early church practices, combined with a decreasing tolerance of archaic worship language rather than contemporary usage, resulted in the most radical revision of the Book of Common Prayer to date. A series of Prayer Book Studies was commissioned in 1949, culminating in final approval of a new prayer book thirty years later. The 1979 revision has been recognized for including both traditional and contemporary worship forms as well as a flexible rite for the worship needs of specific occasions or communities, for placing Holy Communion as the central act of worship, for pastoral sensitivity, and for urging laity to participate actively in corporate worship and ministry. It also reflects diverse ecumenical perspectives, including both Catholic and evangelical influences.
A strong dissenting movement against the 1979 Book of Common Prayer came from the Prayer Book Society, claiming about ten thousand members, which decried both the loss of traditional language and the liberalizing theology underlying the revisions. Criticism also has been leveled by feminists for the prayer book's androcentric wording and imagery, with concern about its power to shape both sacred and secular relationships. Work on a new revision was authorized by the Episcopal Church General Convention in 1994, and reinforced in 1997 by the initiation of a process for authorizing additional worship forms that reflect multicultural, multiethnic, multilingual, and multi-generational realities in society.
The Book of Common Prayer has been studied by other religious traditions intrigued by its common liturgical core as well as its flexibility and diversity. Similarities to the United Methodist Book of Worship remain evident. Comparison of the compatibility of the Book of Common Prayer and the Lutheran Book of Worship has been central to the ongoing work of developing intercommunion between those denominations.
Hatchett, Marion J. Commentary on theAmericanPrayerBook. 1981.
Summer, David E. TheEpiscopal Church'sHistory 1945–1985. 1987.
Paula D. Nesbitt
Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer, title given to the service book used in the Church of England and in other churches of the Anglican Communion. The first complete English Book of Common Prayer was produced, mainly by Thomas Cranmer, in 1549 under Edward VI. Essentially it was a selection and translation from the breviary and the missal, with some additions from other sources. It was made compulsory by the Act of Uniformity (1549). Revision, undertaken by Cranmer, resulted in the Prayer Book of 1552, which showed the influence of foreign reformers then resident in England, for it made possible a wide diversity of views regarding the Eucharist, all justified by this official service book. The prayer book was in use only about eight months before Queen Mary's repeal legislation restored Roman Catholicism in England. In 1559, under Elizabeth I, the Prayer Book of 1552 was restored in a slightly altered version. From 1645 to 1660, under the Commonwealth and Protectorate, the prayer book was suppressed. In a new revision after the Restoration, it was again declared the only legal service book for use in England by an Act of Uniformity (1662). Alterations in the 1662 revision were largely those making for liturgical improvement. In 1927 a revised form was submitted to Parliament, whose approval was (and is) still required, and passed by the House of Lords but rejected by the Commons; it was resubmitted (with certain modifications) in 1928 and again rejected. Nonetheless, the revised prayer book was quite widely adopted in the Church of England with episcopal approval. This situation was finally legalized by the Prayer Book Measure, passed by Parliament in 1965. In addition to authorizing revisions already in use, the act approved the experimental use of new forms of worship drawn up by a liturgical commission; the Alternative Service Book (ASB) was adopted in 1980 and authorized for use alongside the Book of Common Prayer until the end of 2000. Revision of ASB is underway and under the general title Common Worship some revisions have already been authorized and published. In 1789, when the first General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States met, a revised version of the Book of Common Prayer was adopted; it embodied such changes as were required by the new conditions. In the U.S. Episcopal Church, as in other churches of the Anglican Communion over which the British Parliament has no control, there has been greater freedom in liturgical revision; the last U.S. revision of the Book of Common Prayer was in 1979.
See histories of the prayer book by J. H. Blunt (1868) and F. E. Brightman (2d ed. 1921, repr. 1970); J. W. Suter and G. J. Cleaveland, The American Book of Common Prayer (1949); M. H. Shepherd, The Oxford American Prayer Book Commentary (1950); G. Cuming, A History of Anglican Liturgy (1969, repr. 1980); B. Cummings, ed., The Book of Common Prayer (2011); D. Swift, Shakespeare's Common Prayers (2012); A. Jacobs, The Book of Common Prayer (2013).
Book of Common Prayer
After 1549, reformed ideas, particularly from Germany and Switzerland, rapidly gained ground among English scholars, and these were reflected in the Second Prayer Book, issued in 1552. This book was probably little used, as the accession of Mary I saw a temporary return to the older Latin services.
In 1559 a modified 1552 Prayer Book came into use under Elizabeth I, and this in its turn formed the basis of the 1662 book, which remained the norm of Anglican worship until the 20th cent. Attempts to revise the Prayer Book in 1928 were frustrated by Parliament, but since 1980 there has been an authorized Alternative Service Book in England.
Revd Dr John R. Guy