Skip to main content
Select Source:

Peter Damian, Saint

Saint Peter Damian (dā´mēən), Ital. Pietro Damiani, 1007?–1072, Italian reformer, Doctor of the Church, b. Ravenna. He became a Camaldolese monk at Fonte-Avellino (near Gubbio) and because of his rigor and asceticism was made prior. He was a strong advocate of church reform and wrote (c.1050) the Liber Gomorrhianus, a scathing denunciation of clerical immorality and homosexuality that created a sensation. In 1057 Stephen IX made him a cardinal against his will. Nicholas II sent him as legate to Milan, notorious for simony and clerical concubinage. In 1069 Alexander II sent him as legate to settle the quarrel between Roman Emperor Henry IV and the empress. In the dispute with Berengar of Tours Peter deprecated the application of reason in theology. Feast: Feb. 23.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Peter Damian, Saint." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Peter Damian, Saint." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/peter-damian-saint

"Peter Damian, Saint." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/peter-damian-saint

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Peter Damian, St

Peter Damian, St (1007–72). Monk and cardinal. In 1035 he entered on an ascetic life in the Benedictine hermitage at Fonte Avella. About 1043 he became prior and was active in monastic reform and as a preacher against the worldliness of the clergy. Made cardinal bishop of Ostia (against his will) in 1057, he played a prominent part in the reform movement that heralded the Hildebrandine Reform. He was influential too as theologian and spiritual writer. In 1828, he was pronounced Doctor of the Church.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Peter Damian, St." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Peter Damian, St." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/peter-damian-st

"Peter Damian, St." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved May 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/peter-damian-st

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.