Spellman, Francis Joseph
Francis Joseph Spellman, 1889–1967, American Roman Catholic cardinal, b. Whitman, Mass. Educated at Fordham and the American College at Rome, he was ordained May 14, 1916. He was a parish priest in Roxbury, Mass., held various offices in the Boston archdiocese, and was the first American assistant to the papal secretariat of state (1925). He was named (1932) auxiliary bishop of Boston and succeeded (1939) after the death of Cardinal Hayes to the archdiocese of New York. He was elevated to cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1946.
See biographies by R. I. Gannon (1962) and W. Steibel (1966).
"Spellman, Francis Joseph." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spellman-francis-joseph
"Spellman, Francis Joseph." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spellman-francis-joseph
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.