ALEXANDER (c. 36–7 b.c.e.), son of *Herod and *Mariamne. As Herod's heir presumptive, Alexander was educated in Rome with his younger brother Aristobulus from c. 23–17 b.c.e. On his return to Judea he married Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia. His arrival aroused the fears of those members of Herod's retinue who had been responsible for the death of Mariamne, for they assumed Alexander would avenge his mother's death. *Salome – who had been chiefly to blame – incited the king against Alexander, insinuating that he and his brother intended to take revenge on him for their mother's death. Influenced by these slanders, Herod recalled *Antipater, his son by his first marriage, to support him. In 12 b.c.e. the king took both princes with him to Italy to arraign them before Augustus on charges of conspiracy. At their meeting in Aquileia, the emperor managed to effect a reconciliation between the father and the sons. However, the intrigues against the princes continued, and relations with their father deteriorated irrevocably. Alexander was put in irons and his life threatened. As a result of the intervention of Archelaus, Herod was pacified and Alexander released. The machinations against him continued, however. This time it was the Spartan Eurycles, a guest at Herod's court, who incited the king against him after accepting a bribe from Antipater. Herod then suspected two men of plotting with Alexander to kill him. Alexander was again imprisoned, together
with his brother. After Alexander confessed that they wanted to escape to Italy to take refuge from their accusers, Herod again lodged a complaint about his sons' conduct to Augustus. The emperor granted Herod permission to judge them as he saw fit, but advised him to try them in a court composed of Roman well-wishers and officials. The trial took place in Berytus (Beirut). Alexander and his brother were sentenced to death and sent to Caesarea. There a commander of the garrison, Tiro, a veteran in Herod's service, attempted to gain them a reprieve. His plea that if the executions took place riots would erupt only served to incense Herod further. Tiro was put to death together with other friends of Alexander. The two brothers were brought to Sebaste (Samaria) where they were executed by strangling.
Jos., Ant., 15:342; 16:78–129, 189 ff., 230 ff., 244 ff., 30 1 ff., 356 ff.; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 4 (19502), 153 ff.; A. Schalit, Hordos ha-Melekh (19643), 286 ff.; Schuerer, Gesch, 1 (19014), 369 ff., 407 ff.; Graetz, Hist, 2 (1893), 112–3.
ALEXANDER , English family of printers.
alexander alexander (d. 1807?), pioneer of the Hebrew press in London with Benedict Meyers (Hebrew: Jost) of Halberstadt. In 1770 Alexander and Meyers produced an edition of the Ashkenazi prayer book with English translation; the list of subscribers included many non-Jews. This was followed by a Haggadah in two editions, Sephardi and Ashkenazi. Originally Alexander did not do the actual printing himself. He produced many liturgical works, including the complete liturgy according to the Sephardi and Ashkenazi rites with slovenly executed English translations (1773), as well as a Pentateuch with translation (1785). In 1772 he began to issue a series of annual pocket calendars. His son levy (judah leib; 1754–1853) also printed Hebrew and English works for many years, reproducing several of his father's editions. Failing to secure for one of these the patronage of Chief Rabbi Solomon *Hirschel, he published a number of scurrilous attacks on him ("The Axe laid to the root, or, Ignorance and Superstition evident in the character of the Rev. S. Hirschel," 1808; "A Critique of the Hebrew Thanksgiving prayers … on Thursday the 7th of July … With an anecdote of the humorous sermon delivered by the High Priest the Rev. Solomon Hirschel… for the occasion," 1814). He continued the attack on the wrappings of his edition of the festival prayers issued in parts from 1808–15. His own writings include a reply to the proposals of J. *Van Oven on the problem of the Jewish poor (1802), and an English grammar in rhyme (1833). His Memoirs of the Life and Commercial Connections of the Late Benjamin Goldsmid of Roehampton (1808) contains piquant details of contemporary Jewish life in London.
C. Roth, History of the Great Synagogue (1950), 147, 186–7; Roth, Mag Bibl, index. add. bibliography: D.S. Katz, The Jews in the History of England, 1485–1850 (1994), 280, 302; T.M. Endelman, The Jews of Georgian England, 1714–1830 (1999), 190–91, 234–35.
Alexander ★★ 2004 (R)
Looooong and somewhat farcical bio of Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great. In Stone's depiction, Alexander (Farrell) is the pawn in a marital war between his swaggering, drunken father Philip (Kilmer) and his snake-worshipping mother Olympias (a sultry Jolie), who implies that her boy is really the progeny of the god Zeus. Tutored by Aristotle (Plummer), Alexander believes it's his destiny to subjugate as much of the known world as is possible. Lots of big battles ensue as Alexander forcibly unites the squabbling Greek city-states before challenging the might of the Persian empire. He does take some time out to marry hot-blooded Eastern princess, Roxanne (Dawson), while the ruler's relationship with constant companion Hephaistion (Leto) is reduced to meaningful glances. Farrell cannot overcome the fact that he isn't forceful enough to portray an epic figure. 175m/C VHS, DVD . US Colin Farrell, Angelina Jolie, Val Kilmer, Christopher Plummer, Jared Leto, Rosario Dawson, Anthony Hopkins, Brian Blessed, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Tim Pigott-Smith, Gary Stretch, John Kavanagh, Ian Beattie, Feodor Atkine, Connor Paolo, Nick Dunning, Marie Meyer, Elliot Cowan, Joseph Morgan, Denis Conway, Neil Jackson, Rory McCann, Raz Degan, Annelise Hesme; D: Oliver Stone; W: Oliver Stone, Laeta Kalogridis, Christopher Kyle; C: Rodrigo Prieto; M: Vangelis.
After his death from a fever at Babylon his empire quickly fell apart, but he became a model for subsequent imperialist conquerors and the subject of fantastic legends.