In visits to America, Penn set up his “holy experiment,” which included peaceful relations with the Indians. Subsequently, Penn was caught between the demands of the English government and Scotch‐Irish frontier dwellers for military support and the intransigence of the Quaker Pennsylvania legislators. Pennsylvania had no militia until 1755. His own commitment to pacifism was evident in his publication of An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe, by the Establishment of an European Dyet, Parliament or Estates (1693).
[See also Militia and National Guard.]
Joseph E. Illick
JASPER, WILLIAM. (1750?–1779). Patriot hero. South Carolina. Born in South Carolina around 1750, William Jasper enlisted on 7 July 1775 in Francis Marion's Company for service in William Moultrie's Regiment. During the defense of Charleston in 1776 he braved enemy artillery to replace the flag that had been shot from the parapet of Fort Sullivan (later Fort Moultrie). Given a sword by Governor John Rutledge, he declined a commission, insisting that he was not well enough educated to be an officer. As a roving scout under Moultrie, Marion, and Benjamin Lincoln, successively, he gathered valuable information on British activities. He was killed while planting the colors of the Second South Carolina Regiment on the Spring Hill redoubt in the assault on Savannah on 9 October 1779.
SEE ALSO Savannah, Georgia (9 October 1779).
revised by Michael Bellesiles