As governor of Michigan Territory, Lewis Cass (1782-1866) contributed importantly to the development of the Old Northwest. Twice a presidential nominee, he served as secretary of war, minister to France, and secretary of state.
Lewis Cass was born on Oct. 2, 1782, in New Hampshire, the eldest child of a Revolutionary War veteran, Maj. Jonathan Cass, and Mary Gilman Cass. He studied at Phillips Exeter Academy. In 1800 the family moved to the Ohio frontier, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1803. In 1806 he married Elizabeth Spencer and was elected to the legislature in Ohio. In 1807 he became U.S. marshal for Ohio.
In the War of 1812 Cass advanced from colonel of militia to brigadier general and fought with distinction at the Battle of the Thames. In 1813 he was appointed governor of Michigan Territory. He made a fortune by buying land in Detroit and later selling it in city lots. He promoted universal education and the establishment of libraries, built roads, and speeded the work of surveying tracts for settlers; as Indian commissioner, he conducted expeditions to the northwestern area of the territory, studied Native American languages, and supported scholarly work on Native American culture. He had sympathy for the Native Americans, but he persuaded them to cede their lands; as President Andrew Jackson's secretary of war (1831-1836), he vigorously supported the forced removal of the Cherokee from their agricultural lands.
Appointed minister to France in 1836, Cass used his influence against British efforts to stop the international slave trade. In 1842 he resigned and sought the Democratic nomination for president but lost to James K. Polk. Elected to the Senate in 1845, Cass urged war against Britain, if necessary, to obtain all of Oregon. He defended Polk's aggression against Mexico and advocated the acquisition of Cuba.
With Southern support Cass was the Democratic nominee for president in 1848, but in a rather close election he lost to the Whig general Zachary Taylor. Cass was again in the Senate (1849-1856) and again, at the age of 70, a candidate for president in 1852; but the Democrats nominated a nonentity, Franklin Pierce.
Cass supported the Compromise of 1850, including the Fugitive Slave Law, which denied a jury trial to any African American claimed by a slave owner. He supported the "popular sovereignty" doctrine of Stephen Douglas. In 1856 the Republican legislature in Michigan removed him from the Senate.
President James Buchanan made the aged Cass his secretary of state, and in this position Cass remained an expansionist and continued to oppose British policies. But the sectional conflict now dominated the American scene. Cass lost Southern friends by referring, in Michigan, to slavery as "a great social and political evil"; and he finally broke with Buchanan and his Southern advisers and resigned his office in 1860. He supported the Union during the Civil War. He died on June 16, 1866.
Had Cass retired from public life at the age of 60, his place in American history would be higher than it is as a consequence of his support of, and affiliation with, some of the weakest and most disastrous administrations in American history.
The standard biography of Cass is Frank B. Woodford, Lewis Cass: The Last Jeffersonian (1950). The subtitle is misleading, the style journalistic, and the interpretation nationalistic, but Woodford provides the basic information. Andrew C. McLaughlin, Lewis Cass (1891), in the "American Statesmen" series, is still useful. The interpretation is generally logical and persuasive, although McLaughlin is sometimes harshly censorious of Cass and others.
Burns, Virginia, Lewis Cass, frontier soldier, Bath, Mich.: Enterprise Press, 1980.
Klunder, Willard Carl, Lewis Cass and the politics of moderation, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1996.
McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, Lewis Cass, New York: Chelsea House, 1980. □
"Lewis Cass." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lewis-cass
"Lewis Cass." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lewis-cass
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Lewis Cass, 1782–1866, American statesman, b. Exeter, N.H. He established (1802) himself as a lawyer in Zanesville, Ohio, became a member (1806) of the state legislature, and was U.S. marshal for Ohio from 1807 to 1812. In the War of 1812, Cass's command was included against his will in the forces that Gen. William Hull surrendered to the British at Detroit in Aug., 1812. Cass later fought with distinction at the battle of the Thames (Oct. 5, 1813). Left in command at Detroit, Cass was also appointed governor of Michigan Territory, a post he filled ably for 18 years (1813–31). As Secretary of War (1831–36), he favored removal of the Native Americans beyond the Mississippi and supported President Jackson in the nullification crisis. Minister to France (1836–42) and U.S. Senator from Michigan (1845–48, 1849–57), Cass was the Democratic candidate for President in 1848, but because of the defection of the antislavery Democrats led by Martin Van Buren, who became the candidate of the Free-Soil party, he lost the election to the Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor. President Buchanan made (1857) Cass his Secretary of State, but he resigned in Dec., 1860, in protest against the decision not to reinforce the forts of Charleston, S.C.
"Cass, Lewis." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cass-lewis
"Cass, Lewis." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cass-lewis