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McCloy, John J.

McCloy, John J. (1895–1989), advocate of national security in the Cold War era.Born in Philadelphia, McCloy was educated at Amherst College and Harvard Law School. After attending the Plattsburgh military training camps for civilians in 1915–16, McCloy developed a lifelong interest in the military. He joined the American Expeditionary Force in World War I, and later became a Wall Street lawyer, best known for his success in pursuing the “Black Tom” sabotage case against Germany in the 1930s. During World War II, McCloy was assistant secretary of war, handling the political dimension of military problems. He advocated the racial integration of the U.S. military on grounds of increased “efficiency.” However, McCloy also was a central figure in the controversial decisions to intern Japanese Americans and not to bomb the Nazi extermination camp at Auschwitz. Along with Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, McCloy helped defeat the Morgenthau Plan to deindustrialize Germany, and he advocated an international tribunal to investigate German war crimes. His willingness to countenance a significant increase in the power and secrecy of the national government places him as one of the founders of the so‐called national security state. After the war, McCloy served as president of the World Bank (1947–49) and as high commissioner to Germany (1949–52), strongly supporting the rearmament of West Germany and its entry into the NATO alliance.

Although his position as high commissioner was his most significant public office, McCloy played a continuing role in formation of U.S. policy on national security in the nuclear age. He was John F. Kennedy's adviser on disarmament, and served Lyndon B. Johnson in the Trilateral Negotiations of 1966–67, which readjusted NATO's financial burdens after the withdrawal of France. An unapologetic advocate of a Pax Americana, McCloy never wavered in his view of America's international responsibilities and the need for a strong military to exercise global leadership.
[See also Germany, U.S. Military Involvement in; Holocaust, U.S. War Effort and the; Japanese‐American Internment Cases; Morgenthau, Henry.]

Bibliography

Thomas Alan Schwartz , America's Germany: John J. McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany, 1991.
Kai Bird , The Chairman: John J. McCloy, 1992.

Thomas A. Schwartz

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McCloy, John Jay

John Jay McCloy, 1895–1989, U.S. government official, b. Philadelphia. A lawyer, he gained an international reputation when after a long investigation he fixed responsibility on the German government for the Black Tom munitions explosion in Hoboken, N.J., in 1917. He was Assistant Secretary of War in World War II and in 1947 became president of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank). He resigned in 1949 and was U.S. military governor and high commissioner for Germany (1949–52). He returned (1961–63) to government service to act as President Kennedy's principal disarmament adviser. He is the author of The Challenge of American Foreign Policy (1953) and The Atlantic Alliance (1969).

See K. Bird, The Chairman (1992).

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