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Zanth, Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von

Zanth, Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von (1796–1857). Born Zanik, the son of the Jewish doctor to Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860— King of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813), he studied in Paris with Percier and Hittorff, collaborating with the latter (1822–30) on Architecture antique de la Sicile (1827) and Architecture moderne de la Sicile (1835) in which Hittorff's work on polychromy was published. Later, Zanth received his Doctorate from the University of Tübingen for his work on Pompeian domestic architecture. Settling in Stuttgart in c.1830 as Court Architect, he enjoyed the patronage of King Wilhelm I of Württemberg (1816–64), for whom he built the Villa Wilhelma (1837–51) below the hill in the Royal Park of Rosenstein. An asymmetrical composition, with very rich structural polychromy in the Moorish style (the designs of which Zanth published as La Wilhelma in colour in 1855), it was his best work. He designed several town-and country-houses in and around Stuttgart, taught Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92), who built the Königsbau (King's Building—1857–60), Stuttgart, designed earlier (c.1857) by Johann Michael Knapp (1793–1861). Leins also designed (for Crown Prince Karl of Württemberg, who later reigned as King Karl I (1864–91)) the charming Villa Berg, near Stuttgart (1844–53), an Italianate building influenced by Schinkel's work.

Bibliography

Hittorff & and Zanth (1827, 1835);
W. Papworth (1892);
Watkin & and Mellinghoff (1987)

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Scheele, Karl Wilhelm

Scheele, Karl Wilhelm (1742–86) Swedish chemist who discovered oxygen. He discovered it in 1771, but publication of his discovery was delayed, and the credit went to Joseph Priestley. He made other important discoveries, including chlorine, glycerol, and a number of organic acids.

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Severing, Wilhelm Karl

Wilhelm Karl Severing (vĬl´hĕlm kärl zā´vəring), 1875–1952, German statesman. A Social Democrat, he served (1907–33) in the Reichstag, was German minister of the interior (1928–30), and was Prussian minister of the interior during most of the period from 1920 to 1932. He supported the Weimar Republic.

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