John Graves Simcoe
Simcoe, John Graves
Simcoe, John Graves
SIMCOE, JOHN GRAVES. (1752–1806). British commander of the Queen's Rangers. Son of a Royal Navy captain who died at Quebec in 1759, John Simcoe was schooled at Exeter Grammar School, Eton College, and Merton College, Oxford, before becoming an ensign in the Thirty-Fifth Foot on 27 April 1770. He served as adjutant from 27 March 1772, and was promoted lieutenant (by purchase) on 12 March 1774. In April 1775 he embarked with his regiment from Cork as part of the first reinforcement for the army at Boston, where he arrived two days after the battle of Bunker Hill. He saw active service around Boston for the remainder of the year. On 27 December 1775 he purchased a captaincy in the Fortieth Foot, and served with his new regiment in the New York campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. He was severely wounded at the Brandywine River on 11 September 1777, and on 15 October was given the provincial rank of major and named commander of the Queen's Rangers. "He wanted to form a combined light corps which would be especially suited for service in America but would also introduce a more general reform of British military practice. Their training gave little attention to formal drill, but insisted on physical fitness, rapid movement, bayonet fighting, and most particularly, discipline in the field" (S. R. Mealing in DCB). He led this Loyalist legion of light horse and foot troops in the skirmishes at Quintan's Bridge and Hancock's Bridge, both in New Jersey, in March 1778, and in the action at Crooked Billet, Pennsylvania, on 1 May, before taking part in the Monmouth campaign and winning promotion to the provincial rank of lieutenant colonel commandant in June. He took part in the foraging expedition that led to the Tappan massacre in New York on 28 September 1778, but was not engaged in the action itself. On 1 June 1779 his rangers took part in the capture of Stony Point and Verplanck's Point, and they raided Poundridge, New York, on 2 July 1779. He narrowly escaped death when he was ambushed, wounded, and captured with four of his men on 17 October after a successful raid from Amboy to Somerset Court House, New Jersey. He was exchanged on 31 December 1779. "As contemptuous of the military capacity of his adversaries as he was of their republicanism, his leadership made the Queen's Rangers the most successful of the American loyalist corps" (John A. Houlding in ODNB).
When the traitor Benedict Arnold was sent to raid Virginia a year later, Sir Henry Clinton included these instructions (14 December): "Having sent Lieutenant Colonels Dundas and Simcoe (officers of great experience and much in my confidence) with you, I am to desire that you will always consult those gentlemen previous to your undertaking any operation of consequence." Highlights of Simcoe's operations in Virginia were his rout of the militia defenders of Richmond on 5 January 1781, his surprise and rout of another militia concentration by a night raid to Charles City Court House on 8 January, his part in the attack at Petersburg on 25 April, his raid to scatter Friedrich Steuben's command at Point of Fork on 5 June, and his battle at Spencer's Tavern on 26 June. During the Yorktown siege he was posted on the north bank of the York River at Gloucester, and surrendered there with the rest of Cornwallis's army on 20 October 1781.
Promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel in the British Army on 19 December 1781 and invalided home the same month, he married in 1782 and until 1790 divided his time between London and his family estate in Devon. He then entered parliament. On the division of Canada in 1791 he was appointed the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, under Governor-General Sir Guy Carleton. He and his family arrived at Quebec on 11 November 1791, where they wintered. He arrived at Newark, the temporary capital of Upper Canada (now Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario), on 26 July 1792. While his plans "to create a bastion of social and political conservatism and to prevent the emergence of American-style frontier democracy" (ODNB) were beyond his capacity to accomplish in the short term, "he gave both expression and impetus to the blend of conservatism, loyalty, and emphasis on economic progress that was to dominate the province after the War of 1812. The most persistently energetic governor sent to British North America after the American Revolution, he had not only the most articulate faith in its imperial destiny but also the most sympathetic appreciation of the interest and aspirations of its inhabitants" (DCB). Ill health forced his resignation in the summer of 1796.
On 10 November 1796 he was appointed commander of the recently captured island of San Domingo. He returned to England in July 1797, again in ill health. In 1801 he commanded at Plymouth when Napoleon's invasion was expected. In July 1806 he was named commander in chief in India but, his health broken, he took sick on the way out, returned home, and died at Exeter on 26 October 1806.
Simcoe's self-published Journal of the Operations of the Queen's Rangers, released in Exeter in 1787) was "the outstanding tactical study of the petite guerre to emerge from the eighteenth-century American wars, an invaluable training and tactical manual for officers soon to be engaged with the light forces of the French revolutionary armies" (ODNB). It is also a valuable historical account, particularly for the host of skirmishes in which he participated.
Riddell, W. R. The Life of John Graves Simcoe. Toronto: Mclelland and Stewart, 1926.
revised by Harold E. Selesky
Hejduk, John Quentin
A&U, liii (1975), 73–154;
Diamonstein (ed.) (1985);
Frampton et al. (1975);
Hejduk , Le Corbusier Foundation (1972);
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, xxxviii/2 (May 1979), 205–7;
Moneo (ed.) (1987);
van Vynckt (ed.) (1993)
Simcoe, John Graves
John Graves Simcoe (sĬm´kō), 1752–1806, British army officer, first governor of Upper Canada (Ontario). He served with the British in the American Revolution. Upon the division of Quebec into the two Canadas, he was appointed (1791) lieutenant governor of Upper Canada. In 1792 he arrived at Niagara (which he called Newark), his temporary capital; he moved to York (now Toronto) in 1793. Zealous to make the province a strong colony, Simcoe encouraged immigration (particularly of the American Loyalists), fostered agricultural development, and urged the imperial government to establish a provincial college. He was sent (1796) to take part in the ineffective campaign in Haiti and then returned to England.
See biographies by W. R. Ridell (1926), D. C. Scott (rev. ed. 1926), and M. Van Steen (1968).