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Moray, Thomas Randolph, 1st earl of

Moray, Thomas Randolph, 1st earl of [S] (d. 1332). Randolph was a nephew of Robert I Bruce and a stalwart of his regime. Captured fighting for Bruce at Methven in 1306, he changed sides but was captured again, this time by Bruce's men. He rejoined Bruce and, after this unpromising start, became one of his trusted allies and most reliable commanders. He was created earl in 1312.

In March 1314 he seized Edinburgh castle from the English in a brilliant night attack and fought prominently at Bannockburn. Next he campaigned in Ireland with Edward Bruce. He won more victories over the English at Myton in 1319 and at Byland in 1322. He was chief negotiator for the treaty of Corbeil in 1326 which laid the foundations for the ‘Auld Alliance’. On the death of Bruce he acted as regent 1329–32 for the young David II. His standing is shown by the fact that his was the second name to appear on the declaration of Arbroath in 1320.

J. A. Cannon

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Murray, Thomas Randolph, 1st earl of

Thomas Randolph Murray, 1st earl of (both: mûr´ē), d. 1332, Scottish nobleman; nephew of Robert I. He joined Robert's revolt against Edward I of England in 1306 but was captured at the battle of Methven and forced to swear fealty to the English king. Recaptured (1308) by Sir James de Douglas, he became one of Robert's strongest warriors and was created earl of Murray. In 1314 he captured Edinburgh Castle by a daring scaling operation and led a division at Bannockburn. He accompanied Edward Bruce on his invasion of Ireland in 1315 and, with Douglas, led many raids into England, including the one in 1327 in which the young Edward III was nearly captured. He was a principal party in the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Northampton (1328), by which Edward recognized Robert I. He was regent (1331–32) of Scotland for the young David II.

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