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Arbroath abbey. The Tironensian (reformed Benedictine) abbey of Aberbrothoc was founded in 1178 by William ‘the Lion’ (buried there, 1214); munificently endowed by him, it became one of the wealthiest and most privileged religious houses, with ‘mitred’ abbots. The declaration of Arbroath was signed there in 1320. After 1502 the abbots were replaced by ‘commendators’ (loyal servants of the crown); with the Reformation, the abbey estates passed to the Hamilton family, while the ruinous buildings became quarry material for much of the modern burgh.

A. S. Hargreaves

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Arbroath (ärbrōth´) or Aberbrothock (ăb´ərbrəthŏk´), town (1991 pop. 23,934), Angus, E central Scotland, on the North Sea at the mouth of the Brothock River. A seaport, it is known for its smoked haddock, shipbuilding, and the processing of flax and jute. There are engineering works, breweries, an iron foundry, and diverse small industries. Arbroath Abbey was founded by William the Lion c.1178 and contains his tomb. The Scottish estates met in the abbey in 1320 and called for independence from England.

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Arbroath smokie Smoked haddock; differs from finnan haddock in that it is not split but smoked whole.