Skip to main content
Select Source:

Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey

Robert Clive, Baron Clive of Plassey (plăs´ē), 1725–74, British soldier and statesman. He went to India in 1743 as a clerk for the British East India Company and entered the military service of the company in 1744; he soon distinguished himself in the fighting against the French. Clive's brilliant capture of Arcot (1751) and the relief of the siege of Trichinopoly (1752) thwarted Dupleix, who had been on the verge of achieving French hegemony in S India. In 1757, Clive, then governor of Fort St. David near Madras (now Chennai), recovered Calcutta (now Kolkata) from the nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula. Then, after defeating the nawab at Plassey, he replaced him with the more compliant Mir Jafar. Bengal thus passed under effective British control, and Clive became the first governor. His victories over the Dutch at Biderra (1759) consolidated the British position as the dominant European power in India. Returning (1760) to England, he was given an Irish peerage as Baron Clive of Plassey. As governor of Bengal again from 1765 to 1767, Clive greatly reduced corruption and inefficiency in a formerly disordered administration and reached a settlement with the states of Bihar and Orissa. But his assumption of the right to collect the revenues of those states involved the company in the complexities of wide territorial administration, which it was ill equipped to handle. This was one of the factors that eventually led the British government to assume responsibility for British rule in India. After his return to England, Clive was bitterly attacked by politicians and others and was accused by Parliament of peculation. He was acquitted (1773) after a long investigation, but, broken in health, he committed suicide.

See the famous Essay on Clive by T. B. Macaulay; G. B. Malleson, Lord Clive and the Establishment of the English in India (1962); M. Edwardes, Plassey: The Founding of an Empire (1970); L. Stephens, Robert Clive and Imperialism (1981).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clive-robert-baron-clive-plassey

"Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clive-robert-baron-clive-plassey

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey

Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey (1725–74) British soldier and administrator. He went to India as an official of the British East India Company (1743), and successfully resisted growing French power with his capture of Arcot (1751). By taking Calcutta and defeating the pro-French Nawab of Bengal at Plassey (1757) he effectively assured British control of n India. He was governor of Bengal (1757–60, 1765–67). He returned to England in 1773, and was charged with but acquitted of embezzling state funds. He committed suicide.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clive-robert-baron-clive-plassey

"Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved April 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clive-robert-baron-clive-plassey

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.