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Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of

Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of (1625–72). Montagu's cousin, the 2nd earl of Manchester, was a leader on the parliamentary side during the Civil War. Montagu joined him as a young man and fought at Marston Moor and Naseby. He sat in all the Commonwealth parliaments, was a member of the Council of State in 1653, and took his seat in Cromwell's ‘other house’ in 1658. He also saw considerable naval action. Early in 1660 he was reappointed general of the fleet and took it over to Charles II's cause, carrying back the king in his flagship. He was rewarded by the Garter and the earldom of Sandwich. From 1660 to 1670 he was master of the great wardrobe. He was often in employment, bringing over Catherine of Braganza in 1662 and serving as ambassador to Spain 1666–8. In the second Anglo-Dutch war, he was victorious at the battle of Lowestoft, but lost his life in the third war in the action off Southwold Bay in 1672. His body was identified by the Garter star he was wearing. Sandwich was on close terms with both Pepys and Evelyn.

J. A. Cannon

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Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th earl of

Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th earl of (1718–92). A politician of considerable achievements and a discerning patron of the arts, particularly music, Lord Sandwich is most frequently recalled as the inventor of the sandwich—popularly supposed to have sustained him during lengthy spells at the gaming table, but perhaps more attributable to his known practice of working long hours in the office. Sandwich's political ambitions were focused on the Admiralty, where he thrice served as 1st lord (1748–51, 1763, 1771–82), demonstrating both administrative ability and a pragmatic approach to reform. The longer-term benefits of Sandwich's initiatives were reduced by the exigencies of war and he was unjustly blamed for the failings in naval preparedness revealed by the American War of Independence. It is, however, now appreciated that Sandwich deserves credit for the improved naval situation in the latter stages of the war, which enhanced British bargaining power during the peace negotiations.

David Wilkinson

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Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st earl of

Edward Montagu Sandwich, 1st earl of (mŏn´təgyōō), 1625–72, English admiral. He fought in the parliamentary army during the civil war, became (1653) a member of the council of state of the Commonwealth, and was appointed (1656) general at sea. After the collapse of the Protectorate, however, he assisted in the Restoration (1660) of Charles II and escorted the king home from Holland. Created (1660) earl of Sandwich and admiral of the narrow seas, he negotiated (1661) the marriage between Charles and Catherine of Braganza, secured English possession of Tangier as part of her dowry, and brought Catherine to England. He fought with distinction at the battle of Lowestoft (1665) in the second Dutch War and was killed in the battle of Southwold Bay in the third war. Samuel Pepys, his cousin's son, was his secretary at the admiralty.

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