Institutions for the mentally ill, formerly called asylums, and now called psychiatric institutions.
Beginning in the Middle Ages, mental hospitals were basically prisons. By the end of the eighteenth century, the term asylum was used, and some reforms were being implemented when the notion was introduced that psychological disturbances, like physical ailments, could be viewed as diseases requiring treatment rather than crimes calling for imprisonment. By the late 1800s, reactions against conditions in mental hospitals led to a reform movement in the care and treatment of people with mental disorders. The Mental Health Act of 1946 and the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 allotted federal funds for the establishment of community treatment centers, which provide a variety of services—including short-term and partial hospitalization—in an effort toward the deinstitutionalization of mental patients. As of the late 1990s, institutions for the treatment of mental disorders are called psychiatric institutions. These institutions—along with mental health centers and halfway houses—form a system for treatment of mental disorders at all levels of severity.
Wyer, Robert S., Jr., ed. Knowledge and Memory: The Real Story. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.
Hartmann, Ernest. Boundaries in the Mind: A New Psychology of Personality Difference. New York: Basic Books, 1991.
See also Institutionalization
"Mental Hospitals." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mental-hospitals
"Mental Hospitals." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mental-hospitals
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.