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Bursa

BURSA

fourth largest city of turkey, in northwest anatolia.

Bursa was the first major conquest of the early Ottomans in 1324. A modest Byzantine provincial market town, it quickly developed as the first capital of the growing Ottoman Empire, featuring many of the finest examples of early Ottoman architecture. Positioned on the northern foothills of Uludağ (Bithynian Mount Olympus) close to the Sea of Marmara, with easy access to the Mediterranean and on the natural extension of Anatolian routes, it became a major international commercial center, where European, mainly Genoese, merchants bought silk and other Eastern goods. It was also widely known for its abundant hot springs and magnificent baths.

Even after the conquest of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453, when it became the definitive capital of the empire, Bursa remained an imperial city and a thriving international market, with significant manufacture of cotton and silk textiles, in addition to its long-established role as terminus for long-distance Asian caravan trade. With a population of about 40,000 in the sixteenth century, it was the largest city in Anatolia. Bursa's growth was hampered in the seventeenth century as a result of the Ottoman policy of promoting İzmir as the major port for Asian and European trade, but the city retained its position as a prominent, if less prosperous, cultural, manufacturing, and commercial center. During the Tanzimat period of free trade, with competition from industrialized Europe, Bursa's silk and cotton textile manufacture suffered significantly, but both the Ottoman policy of industrialization and private investment in steam-powered plants allowed recovery of local production before the end of the century. Bursa became the seat of an enlarged province incorporating several northwest Anatolian districts. Abdülhamit II's efforts to glorify the early Ottoman heritage also contributed to the city's growing fortunes.


Bursa was occupied by the Greek army after World War I, and the city suffered during the ensuing Turkish War of Independence, especially with the destructive retreat of the Greek army in 1922 and the loss of its non-Muslim population. As a result of the state-led industrialization during the 1920s and 1930s, Bursa recovered its textile manufacturing prominence, but its real growth came in the 1960s, with the establishment by private enterprises first of large-scale canning and food processing and then of the automotive industry. In 2000, Bursa was the third largest contributor to Turkey's gross domestic product, with its population of 2,106,687, of whom 1,288,068 reside in the city center. It also ranked fifth among Turkish cities with respect to socioeconomic development. Even with this rapid industrial transformation, however, Bursa still maintains its role as a spa and a heritage center; Uludağ has recently become a favorite winter resort and its highland pastures have regained their early-Ottoman importance for summering. Uludağ University, opened in 1975, aims to foster the city's traditional position of cultural and intellectual prominence.

see also abdÜlhamit ii; anatolia; istanbul; İzmir; ottoman empire; tanzimat.


Bibliography

Özendeş, Engin. The First Ottoman Capital, Bursa: A Photographic History. Istanbul: Yapi-Endüstri Merkezi Yayinlari, 1999.

Turkish Ministry of Culture. Information found at <http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=1934>.

I. Metin Kunt

Updated by BurÇak Keskin-Kozat

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bursa (in anatomy)

bursa (bûr´sə), closed fibrous sac lined with a smooth membrane, producing a viscous lubricant known as synovial fluid. Bursas are found in regions where muscles or tendons rub against other muscles, tendons, or bones. The bursas function in two ways, lubricating points of friction, and dissipating force by distributing it through a fluid medium. Normally, the bursas produce just enough synovial fluid to reduce friction. However, constant irritation may lead to oversecretion and consequent enlargement of the bursa, a condition known as bursitis. In the hand and foot, the bursa assumes a tubular form. Called the synovial sheath, the structure encloses the tendons along their entire length.

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Bursa (city, Turkey)

Bursa (bŏŏrsä´), city (1990 pop. 838,323), capital of Bursa prov., NW Turkey. The market center of a rich agricultural region, on the ancient Silk Road S of Constantinople, Bursa was long noted for its silks, but is now a producer of automobiles, other textiles and apparel, and metals. Founded at the end of the 3d cent. BC by the king of Bithynia, Prusias I, it was called Prusia ad Olympium or Prusa. It was captured by the Seljuk Turks in 1075, taken by the Crusaders in 1096, and in 1204 passed to the Byzantines. Captured in 1326 by the Ottoman Turks, it became the Ottoman capital. It was sacked by Timur in 1402; afterward Adrianople (now Edirne) became (1413) the new Ottoman capital. Among the city's sites, the Green Mosque (1421) and mosque of Beyazid I (1399) are especially noted. The town is sometimes called Brusa.

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bursa

bursa (ber-să) n. (pl. bursae) a small sac of fibrous tissue that is lined with synovial membrane and filled with fluid. Bursae help to reduce friction; they are normally formed round joints and in places where ligaments and tendons pass over bones.
bursal adj.

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bursa

bursa (pl. bursae) A sac of fibrous connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid. Bursae are found between bones and other tissues, such as skin, ligaments, tendons, and muscles, where they reduce friction when one part moves over another.

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bursa

bur·sa / ˈbərsə/ • n. (pl. -sae / -sē/ or -sas ) Anat. a fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, esp. one countering friction at a joint. DERIVATIVES: bur·sal adj.

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Bursa

BURSA

BURSA (Brusa , formerly Prusa ), city in northwestern Anatolia, capital of the Ottomans in the 14th century; afterward a provincial capital. According to seven Hebrew inscriptions from 820 c.e., Jews lived in Bursa in the Byzantine period. When Bursa was captured by the Ottomans (1326), the city was vacated by its inhabitants but the Jews returned shortly thereafter. A 14th-century colophon identifies a member of the Jewish community in Bursa as Shlomo ha-Nasi, son of Rabbi Jesse ha-Nasi of Trnovo. In one case, in 1471–74, the public scales at the market in Bursa, where goods were officially weighed and certified, were in the hands of Istanbul Jews originally from Trnovo and Cernova. The tax farmers were still paying off their debt to the government as late as 1478. Spanish exiles settled in the city in the first half of the 16th century and the existing community of *Romaniot (Byzantine) Jews assimilated among them. The Jews in Bursa lived in a special quarter where they continued to reside until the 1960s. The Eẓ Ḥayyim synagogue, which resembles a mosque, is the oldest of the town's three synagogues, the others (Gerush and Mayor) having been established later by Spanish exiles. In 1592 several Jews were accused of luring a man named Mirza b. Ḥusain into their home and tying him to a pillar where they drew his blood although he ultimately escaped. The sultan ordered the eight Jews involved to be exiled to Rhodes. In the late 16th century, an attempt was made to remove Jews from shops in the marketplace at Bursa, but the Jews were able to produce orders proving that the government had guaranteed them the right to occupy those shops without interference and even to pass them on to their children. This privilege was probably issued in the early part of the century to encourage Jews to settle and stay in Bursa. According to the Tapo documents and other Ottoman documents, in the years 1538–39 and 1540–41, 166 Jewish families lived in the city of Bursa, in 1546 there were 250 Jewish families, and in 1594–95 there were 650. By 1598, 735 Jewish families lived in Bursa. All these families paid the jizya tax to the Ottoman Empire. There are many documents about the Jewish community of Bursa in the 17th century. In 1618–19 and c. 1641–42, 270 Jewish families lived in the city, but by 1696–97 there were only 141 Jewish families in Bursa. The Jews lived in large corporate houses that were owned by Muslim waqfs in the city, the majority of them in the Koro-Çesme quarter. The Jews were deeply involved in the economic activities of Bursa unlike the Christians. Generally, the Jews enjoyed the favors of the authorities and there were Jews who even purchased Muslim slaves. They also bought Jewish slaves and ransomed them. Only a few Jews were murdered in Bursa during the Ottoman period. The Jews owned many shops in the city markets and did business with other groups. The Jews were also members of the local guilds. They paid the jizya tax through their representative, the *kakhya. In 1603–04 the kakhya was Joseph ben Moses. In the 17th century there were local Jews who had a monopoly (Iltizam) on the mercantile taxes of the Ottoman government, including the Persian silk tax, the wine tax, etc. By the mid-17th century many Jews lost their businesses to military personnel who took control of the markets. During the Ottoman period the Jews in Bursa stood out especially as goldsmiths, luxury metalworkers, and financiers but only a few were moneylenders. Sometimes the Sarraf-Bashi in the city was a Jew, such as Isaac ben Joseph. The majority of Jews were textile workers and merchants. Many imported Persian silk and were members of the silk merchants guilds. Many others were silk manufacturers and dyers. Many, however, were poor. In 1539 or 1543 Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ya'ish (b. c. 1520) lived there. He was a member of the yeshivah founded around that time by R. Isaac ibn Lev and also the rabbi of the Gerush congregation in the city. Other known scholars of the period were Moses Ibn Gamil, Yom Tov Alroyo, Meir Halevi ibn Migash, Moses Shorbiel, and Jacob Sirilano. They corresponded with such famous rabbis as Joseph *Caro and Samuel *Medina. R. Gabriel ben Elia founded another yeshivah in Bursa and was head of the city's rabbis until 1560. He settled in Lepanto in 1561 but died before 1570. Ibn Ya'ish immigrated to Istanbul and died there before 1579. The rabbis of Bursa in the first half of the 17th century were Abraham Algazi and his son Judah Algazi (d. 1636) and Abraham Ganso. In the second half of the same century the rabbis Samuel Sagnis and Isaac Raphael Alfandari served in the city. Moses Algazi, the father of R. Solomon Algazi of Izmir, was the chief rabbi of Bursa in 1668. Joshua *Benveniste lived in the city for a short period in the mid-17th century. Raphael Samuel Hadjes was the chief rabbi in 1672–80. At the beginning of the 18th century Elijah Joseph Shilton was the chief rabbi in the city, and Yom Tov Saban officiated in Bursa in the mid-18th century.

The majority of Bursa Jews during the Ottoman period were religious but not cultured people. Modernity penetrated the city only in the late decades of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. The Jews spoke and wrote Ladino. Before Passover 1865, another blood libel accusation occurred, but the authorities took immediate measures to punish the Greeks who rioted in the Jewish quarter. At the end of the 18th century R. Ḥayyim Moses Galipolity lived in the city. The latter was also a physician. In the 19th century R. Jacob de Leon, the stepfather of R. Hayyim *Palache, lived in Bursa. He wrote Tikkun ha-Shulḥan, published in Istanbul in 1849. R, Shabbetai Galipolity served as a rabbi in the second half of the 19th century and wrote his book Yismaḥ Mosheh, published in Izmir in 1868. Other rabbis in the city during the last decades of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th were Nissim Medini, Solomon Uziel, David Papo, and Moses ben Habib.

The Alliance Israélite Universelle founded a boys and a girls school in 1886, which 450 pupils attended in 1914–18. In 1923 the schools were closed and the students were transferred to a Turkish school. Another scholar in that town was R. David Papo, the author of the book of sermons Benei Me'ir, which was published in Izmir in 1888. There were a few cases of local Jews who married Muslims. In 1883, 2,179 Jews lived in the city; in 1886, 600 families (2,800 people). The entire Jewish community lived in the same quarter and was poor. Before World War i the community numbered 3,500. In 1927 this fell to 1,865, due to considerable immigration to South America. In 1939 there were 2,400 Jews, but by 1969 only 350–400 remained. By 1977 that number had dwindled to 192 Jews. The number of those employed was 52, of whom 46 were textile merchants. The leaders of the community were then Joseph Ventura and Kamal Ezuz. The rabbi was Uriel Arisa, a native of Istanbul. The Jewish waqf survived. It contained a complete street with 30 shops that in the past were rented by Jews and a large area where the Etz Ḥayyim synagogue once stood. This synagogue was burned in 1851. The estate is rented to Gentiles, with the monies going to the community treasury. The Gerush synagogue has existed for 400 years and includes seating for 500 men and 200 women. The ancient Mayor synagogue has seating for 250 men and 100 women.

bibliography:

Rosanes, Togarmah, 1 (19302), 2–3; 2 (1938), 47; A Galanté, Histoire des Juifs d'Anatolie, 2 (1939), 94ff.; idem, Appendice à l'Histoire des Juifs d'Anatolie (1948), 18–21; Heyd, in: Sefunot, 5 (1961), 137–44; Nathan, in: jjso, 6 (1964). 180–1. add. bibliography: jqr, 57 (1967), 528–43; M. Benayahu, in: Sefunot, 11 (1971–78), 267–69; H. Gerber, in: Sefunot, 1:16 (1980), 235–72; M.A. Epstein, The Ottoman Jewish Communities and their Role in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (1980), 111, 122, 214; S. Bowman, The Jews of Byzantium, 1204–1453, (1985), 91; S. Tuval, in: Peʿamim, 12 (1982), 131–32; A. Rodrigue, Ḥinukh, Ḥevrah ve-Historiah, Kol Yisrael Ḥaverim ve-Yehudei ha-Yam ha-Tikhon, 1860–1929 (1991), 28, 132–34, 156; A. Levy (ed), The Jews of the Ottoman Empire (1994).

[Aryeh Shmuelevitz /

Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky (2nd ed.)]

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