In the 16th cent., unacc. polyphonic settings of the complete Lat. text of the Passion were based on a plainchant cantus firmus. Among many such settings were those of Obrecht, Daser, Ruffo, Lassus, Victoria, and Byrd. One of the earliest settings by an Eng. composer was that by Richard Davy.
Outstanding examples of the Ger. type of Passion are the settings of Schütz (1585–1672). He adopted a type of recit. derived from the new It. style but which also had considerable affinity with the old plainsong. The 4-part chs. are acc. by str. The various characters are allotted to different vocal soloists and the works can be designated as ‘oratorio Passions’. In the 17th cent. the ‘Passion oratorio’ developed, in which the biblical text was replaced by a metrical paraphrase, as in Keiser's Der blutige und sterbende Jesus (1704). But Bach, in his great St John and St Matthew Passions, combined both types of setting, making use of biblical text, paraphrases, chorales, arias, and imparting to the mus. a startlingly dramatic quality. In the 19th cent. oratorios on biblical subjects replaced the strict Passion settings, but Penderecki in the 20th cent. had remarkable success with his St Luke Passion (1963–6), leading to Passions by Pärt and others.
"Passion Music." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/passion-music
"Passion Music." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved April 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/passion-music
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passion music, choral music whose text depicts events immediately surrounding the crucifixion of Jesus. The earliest passions, composed from the 9th to the 14th cent., were monophonic and employed the actual biblical text of one of the four Evangelists. Polyphonic passions originated in England in the 15th cent. After the Reformation, free poetry was added to passion texts. Orchestral accompaniment was used during the baroque period. The genre reached its peak in the baroque period with such works as Schütz's three Dresden passions (1665–66) and J. S. Bach's St. John Passion (1723) and St. Matthew Passion (1729). Not well represented in the 19th and early 20th cent., the genre underwent a revival in the late 20th cent., notably with K. Penderecki's Passio et mors domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam [Passion according to St. Luke] (1965) and Arvo Pärt's Passio Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Joannem [Passion according to St. John] (1982).
See B. Smallman, The Background of Passion Music (2d ed. 1970).
"passion music." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/passion-music
"passion music." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/passion-music