Review and Outlook
Review and Outlook
Shanghai, the largest city in China, prides itself on its history of education that epitomizes the national process of educational modernization. In 1874, it witnessed the founding of Gezhi College—now Gezhi Secondary School in Huangpu District—the first of its kind in China, under the joint efforts of both Chinese and foreign partners. Four years later, Zhengmeng School—now Meixi Primary School in Huangpu District—was set up as China’s earliest modern primary school. Nanyang Public School—now Shanghai Jiaotong University and one of the pioneering universities run completely by Chinese—was established in 1896, followed a year later by the founding of Nanyang Public Normal College, the first institution to specialize in teacher training in China. Jingzheng Girls' School, set up in 1898, was the first educational institution for women. The National Association of Vocational Education of China, also the first of its kind, was established in 1917. Such a list can go on and on.
Shanghai started its trading with the outside world in 1843. This also marked the beginning of its urbanization. Many Western missionaries came to China with the increase in Sino-Foreign contacts. Apart from preaching and other religious obligations, these missionaries set up educational institutions. St. Ignatius Public School—now Shanghai Xuhui Secondary School—was their first endeavor. At the same time, some officials of the Qing dynasty belonging to the Western Modernization Movement advocated “the Chinese learning for moral perfection and the Western learning for material production.” They adopted Western technologies, especially those applicable to military industries, in order to lift the country out of the quagmire of underdevelopment and vulnerability in the face of foreign invasion. Under such circumstances the Shanghai Guangfang College of Liberal Arts, the earliest modern institute in Shanghai, was established in 1863. It focused on the learning of Western languages at the beginning and gradually expanded its curricula to cover courses in industrial technologies. Later, more schools and factories were established in Shanghai for students to master the Western arts and technologies. Shanghai Jiangnan Arsenal and its affiliated Machinery School (1865) and Shanghai Telegraph School (1882) are examples of the earliest military-technical schools and communication schools established in China.
The first Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1894 and ended with China's defeat, forcing her not only to cede territory but also to pay war indemnity. To halt the plight of domestic instability and foreign invasion, Yan Fu and other scholars advocated education as the only remedy for China. The idea appealed instantly to the public. The transition from the 19th to 20th centuries witnessed new schools mushrooming in Shanghai, with the most influential being Nanyang Public School, Aurora University, Fudan Public School (now Fudan University), China Public School, Jingzheng Girls' School, Chengzhong High School, Wuben Girls' School, and Minli High School. From 1901 to 1911, more than 300 new-style educational institutions, including 285 primary schools, 12 secondary schools, six normal schools, 11 short-term teacher training colleges, 12 kindergartens, as well as several institutions of higher education and girls' schools were established in Shanghai. The number of educational institutions established in Shanghai in the first decade of the 20th century quintupled the total founded during the latter half of the 19th century. In addition, a multi-dimensional educational structure began to take root in Shanghai from the early 1900s. Under the influence of Western educational concepts, Shanghai embraced not only the new curricula based upon modern science, such as Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geography, Biology, and foreign languages, but also contemporary educational principles and applications, such as Herbart's pedagogy and class teaching system. Along with the rise of national education was the extensive use of textbooks written by Chinese scholars and printed in Shanghai. Nanyang Public Normal College produced a series of textbooks for pre-school use in 1897. It also published textbooks on Mathematics, Physics, and so on. The Commercial Press, a private publisher in China, published many textbooks for primary schools, such as the 18-volume New Chinese Textbook and other educational materials on Moral Cultivation, Arithmetic, Abacus, Physics, Geography, and History.
In 1902, Cai Yuanpei and several other scholars founded the Patriotic Society and the Patriotic Girls' School in Shanghai. In 1912, the then Ministry of Education (MOE) promulgated the new educational system and relaxed restrictions on the founding of private schools, resulting in the co-existence of public schools, such as Jingye Secondary School and Wuben Girls' School, and private ones. Private schools soon increased to 20 in Shanghai. The early years of the 20th century also witnessed the establishment of higher vocational institutions. The National Association of Vocational Education of China was organized in May 1917 by Cai Yuanpei, Huang Yanpei, and 40 other people, to provide services like career guidance and job hunting for the jobless. They also founded, in the following year, the Shanghai Zhonghua Vocational School, which stands as a milestone in China's history of vocational education and relevant research. As of 1936, Shanghai had 1,033 primary schools with 185,700 pupils; 149 secondary schools with 37,000 students, which can be further classified into 44 junior high schools, with a total student population of 5,785, and 76 complete secondary schools and senior high schools with 26,300 students; 21 vocational schools with 3,668 students; eight normal schools with 1,405 students; and 34 institutions of higher education with 13,200 registered students.
Unfortunately, on August 13, 1937, Japan launched a full-scale invasion of Shanghai and took control of the entire city, except the foreign concessions. From 1937 to 1941, when the Pacific War broke out, a large number of refugees from the vicinity of Shanghai rushed into the concessions to avoid the Japanese invaders. In response to the soaring urban population, many private schools, both primary and secondary, were established. In the meantime, a number of schools in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and other provinces relocated their campuses to the concessions in Shanghai. Fifty-three private secondary schools were set up in Shanghai in those five years, when more primary schools were founded.
After the Anti-Japanese War, Shanghai implemented a national education system which combined education for school-age children and that for adults to facilitate further development. The postbellum period gave birth to eight new public schools and 22 private ones. The basic educational framework was firmly established in Shanghai. According to the statistics of 1948, Shanghai had the following: 1,110 primary schools, out of which 34 were key schools with a total enrolment of 341,500; there were also 666 tutorial classes for 20,300 children and 439 tutorial classes for 26,700 adults; 241 secondary schools with a student population of 98,400, among which 84 were junior high schools with 14,800 students, 157 complete and senior high schools with 83,600 students, 42 vocational schools with 7,763 students, and two normal schools with 840 students; 125 kindergartens catering for 22,600 children; 43 institutions of higher education, including ten universities with 21,900 undergraduates, 11 independent colleges with 2,924 students, and 22 junior colleges with 6,087 students; and the adult education administered in public educational institutions and tutorial schools. In 1949, there were 176 independent schools financed by the municipal government and 44 schools jointly run by government and private organizations with a total enrolment of over 40,000 students. There were more than 300 public and private tutorial schools, most of which conducted vocational courses and single courses in liberal arts. Among the most influential of such tutorial schools were Shanghai Minzhong Experimental School and seven vocational schools initiated by the National Association of Vocational Education of China.
Before 1949, the educational institutions at various levels directly financed or managed by missionary organizations and other agencies from the West had formed an independent system. In 1948, there were 134 missionary schools, including four universities and 38 secondary schools, 88 primary schools, and four kindergartens. Apart from missionary schools, the Shanghai Municipal Council and the French Municipal Council under the concession authorities also developed in their spheres five secondary schools and 11 elementary ones for Chinese youngsters.
The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 ushered in a new era for educational development in Shanghai. The First Five-Year Plan witnessed the establishment of many new schools in Shanghai and the extension and reconstruction of existing schools. In 1953, three new secondary schools and one normal college were built. In 1954, 14 secondary schools, 12 kindergartens, one normal college, and one secondary school offering courses for workers and peasants were founded. In 1955, newly built or expanded schools including kindergartens, normal colleges, schools for the deaf, and teacher-training schools added up to 84. In 1957, eight secondary schools and 15 primary schools were set up, while 12 secondary schools and 71 primary schools underwent expansion.
In 1953, total enrolment of secondary schools in Shanghai, both junior and senior, was 191,700 with the figure increasing by 92% to 367,300 in 1957. In the same year, 48,700 students were admitted, rising by 140% to 116,800 in 1957. The number of graduates stood at 28,700 in 1952, but this climbed to 80,200 in 1957. These statistics indicate that the new republic followed the educational policy that mass education is for the ordinary people, thus making remarkable progress in popularizing education for the working people. In fact, since 1958, many secondary schools, including schools of agriculture, industry, finance, and trade, have been developed. Though the development of vocational education was fraught with challenges, it received a strong boost in 1964 when a large number of work- and farm-study programs were launched.
To meet the needs of the Big Leap Forward campaign, Shanghai followed, from 1958, the principle of “walking on two legs” in educational development. It mobilized communities, factories, enterprises, NGOs, and the people's communes to play a part, while the development of public schools was always its priority. As a result, primary schooling was basically popularized within a short period of time and secondary education also witnessed rapid development. Compared with that of 1957, the total number of (1) students in secondary schools rose from 367,300 to 640,700, up 74.4%; (2) pupils in primary schools from 1,244,800 to 2,079,200, up 65%; and (3) children in kindergartens from 113,700 to 149,900, up 31.8%. In terms of special education, there were 2,633 students in 13 deaf-mute schools in 1965, while there were only 988 students in seven deaf-mute schools in 1957. In 1961, Shanghai closed down some substandard schools in compliance with the policies of the central government. In 1965, there were altogether 2,719,900 students in primary and secondary schools in Shanghai with 108,200 teaching and administrative staff.
Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh CPC Central Committee convened in 1978, Shanghai has taken on a new look in education. In 1981, there were 832,200 pupils in 3,359 primary schools. Entrants and graduates of that year were 120,100 and 132,500 respectively. In the same year, there were 499,300 students in 939 secondary schools. In 1988, there were 132,900 students in 543 independent secondary vocational or technical schools of different types. These included 115 vocational secondary schools (11 of which were teacher-training schools), with a student population of 65,200; 325 skilled-worker schools with a population of 54,200 and 103 secondary vocational schools with 36,900 students. These schools mentioned above employed 36,800 teachers and supporting personnel. In 1989, there were 28 schools for special education in Shanghai. These included 1,310 students in 20 deaf-mute schools, 140 students in one deaf-mute skilled-worker school, 146 students in one school for the blind, and 1,400 students in six schools for the intellectually disabled. In 1989, there were also 23 children's palaces, 19 youth centers of science and technology, with seven affiliated schools specialized in science.
In 1976, there were 16 institutions of higher education, two of which were under the municipal government while the rest were under the respective ministries or commissions of the central government. As of 1988, Shanghai had 51 institutions of higher education, with an operating cost of RMB 407 million, up about 195% over RMB 138 million in 1979 and 868 times more than that of 1949. In 1988, investment in the capital construction of institutions of higher education in Shanghai amounted to RMB 242 million, or 651 times more than that of 1949. Shanda University, the first private institution of higher education, was established in 1992. It is one of two private universities in Shanghai, the other being Shanghai Jianqiao College. Currently, Shanghai has 16 private universities, colleges, and junior colleges. In 1994, China Europe International Business School was set up under the joint efforts of the Shanghai Municipal Government (SMG), the European Union, and Shanghai Jiaotong University. After continuous development for about a decade, it has become one of the world's renowned management schools, ranking No.l in Asia.
Since China opened its door to the outside world, Shanghai has experienced unprecedented changes. On the threshold of the 21st century, higher education in Shanghai attained a certain level of popularization. The gross enrolment rate for higher education surpassed 50% of the total applications. The first phase of the Songjiang University City has been completed. There have been remarkable improvements in the hardware and software of primary, secondary, and vocational schools. Eleven modern boarding senior high schools and ten vocational schools have been built; a large number of kindergartens, primary, and secondary schools have been rebuilt and expanded. The period of compulsory education in Shanghai has reached 12 years. Accompanying these changes are the breakthroughs in the content and approaches to adult education, which have been playing a crucial role in training urgently needed talents in computer science and foreign languages. Television and the internet have also made significant contributions to distance education. Shanghai has formed an educational system for lifelong education which is multi-layered and well interconnected. It is sure to contribute to Shanghai's positioning toward a central city in the new phase and its further development through science and education.
In 2005, there were 60 full-time institutions of higher education: 35 universities, colleges, and junior colleges (two private colleges and four independent institutes), 25 higher vocational and technical colleges (14 of which are privately run) in Shanghai. There were 442,600 students registered in that year, and the average student population was 7,400 per campus with a teacher-student ratio of 1:13.9. By the end of 2005, there were altogether 2,023 specializations, 517 of which were under the MOE and the remaining 1,506 under the municipal government of Shanghai. The 60 Shanghai-based institutions of higher education consisted of three comprehensive universities, 24 colleges of technology, 17 institutes of finance and economics, three law schools, two agricultural colleges, two medical colleges, two normal colleges, four schools of arts, one college of physical education, and two colleges of language and literature.
Adhering to the policy of relying on science, education, and talents for national rejuvenation, Shanghai is vigorously promoting independent innovation and nurturing creative talents. To achieve this, Shanghai has started an all-round educational reform, which aims to: (1) adjust and optimize the layout and specializations of higher education in Shanghai to suit its socioeconomic development; (2) abide by relevant laws and regulations in the management of institutions of higher education for a higher profit margin; (3) build a modern system for the management and execution in higher education; and (4) form a competitive mechanism conducive to the advancement of higher education. Both the academic and administrative staff of these institutions have been complying with the Law on Higher Education, enabling these institutions to progress by leaps and bounds. By 2005, the institutions of higher education in Shanghai had achieved a gross enrolment rate of 57% for the age group between 18 and 22, which means higher education in Shanghai had reached international enrolment standards. These institutions admitted 131,800 fresh students in 2005, up by 1% or 1,200 more students over that of the previous year. Among the newly enrolled students, 73,900 pursued degree courses. Also, 57,900 students were enrolled in higher vocational and technical colleges. In the same year, 103,400 students graduated, up 16.7% over that of the previous year: 51,900 students graduated with first degree from universities while 51,500 graduated from higher vocational and technical colleges. In addition, 16,700 postgraduates completed their studies in 2005. The employment rate for these graduates reached 98%.
Universities based in Shanghai, such as Fudan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai International Studies University, Donghua University, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, and Shanghai University, have been included in “Project 211,” a nationwide blueprint of investment in about 100 selected universities in the early 21st century to enable all, or at least some of them, to attain world-class standards. The MOE and SMG decided in 1999 to jointly develop Fudan University and Jiaotong University, and then Tongji University in 2002. In three years these three universities received a total investment of RMB 1.8 billion, which was to be spent on financing key disciplines and recruiting prominent professors and researchers from overseas.
During the Tenth Five-Year Plan, higher education in Shanghai greatly developed in terms of the content and conduct of courses. In the university instruction evaluation conducted by the MOE, 11 universities out of 12 from Shanghai were rated excellent and one good. Breakthroughs were continuously made in the advancement of specializations, as clearly demonstrated by the increasing expenditure on research, well recognized research findings, and the growing number of published monographs and treatises. The tuition system for higher education was adopted in 1997. SMG and the universities allocated special funds to support financially challenged students through scholarships, student loans, and work-study programs. Universities were granted greater autonomy in defining enrolment standards and administrative systems under the ambit of relevant national policies. As to graduate employment, the universities were more empowered in terms of coordination and recommendation, while employers and graduates were granted more room for bilateral choice. The Shanghai Career Guidance Center for Graduates was established as a special channel to help graduates reach the human resources market, thus promoting the marketability of graduates.
Shanghai evolved a strategy to promote science, education, and talents in its efforts to implement the scientific approach to development and create a harmonious society. Fully aware that science and technology play the most important role in productivity and that talents are a valuable asset, Shanghai is determined to accelerate the development of education and human resources in order to lay a solid foundation for the building of an international center of economy, finance, trading, and shipping industry. To this end, Shanghai has been quickening its pace of developing the six pillar industries, namely information technology, finance, commerce, automobile manufacturing, packaged equipment, and real estate. It has also spared no effort in stimulating the development of four emerging industries: bio-medicine, new materials, environmental protection, and modern logistics. Shanghai has given priority to the development of such basic industries as petro-chemical and iron and steel industries while lending support to the development of metropolitan industries, such as clothing and food processing. The fast-growing modern manufacturing and service industries, which are included in the new industrial structure, require not only a great number of university and college graduates but also sustained innovation and progress of higher education in human resource development.
There was a teaching and administrative staff of 74,600 in the 60 institutions of higher education, 31,800 of whom were full-time lecturers. The figures of administrative staff and full-time lecturers with institutions under the SMG were 36,000 and 18,300 respectively. There were 78,700 postgraduates at school, up 13.4% over the previous year. There were also 26,200 overseas students studying in these universities and colleges, up 20% over the year before. In 2005, the enrolment statistics hit 13,180, including 27,700 postgraduates, and 1,679 from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macao. The total number of graduates reached 103,400 in 2005 with excellent employment prospects.
Outstanding achievement was scored in the restructuring of Shanghai's higher education, as indicated by “2+2+X.”1 By the end of the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2001–2005), Shanghai had completed a campus expansion by 24,460 mu (1 mu = 0.067 ha.), equivalent to 147% of the total campus area at the end of the Ninth Five-Year Plan; and campus buildings had expanded by an added floor area of 6.68 million square meters, accounting for 93% of the total floor area of campus buildings at the end of the Ninth Five-Year
1 A plan formulated by the Shanghai Municipal Government to establish two clusters of higher education institutions, two university parks in Songjiang and Nanhui, and a number of specialized institutions maintaining close ties with the industry.
Plan. Increased expansion of campus area as well as floor area of campus buildings helped create a more favorable living and studying environment for students in Shanghai. The system of educational investment was also reformed with the establishment of Shanghai Shenjiao Educational Investment Co., Ltd. Responsible for the stock and increment of educational resources as a whole, the company successfully financed the campus expansion projects.
In 2005, the first five joint training centers for postgraduates in Shanghai were approved. Thirty-five “highland” projects for improving undergraduate education were started. Among the 69 specializations included by the SMG in the second round of focused development were 15 advantageous ones, 39 unique ones, and 15 for nurturing. For the third time, 100 best courses in Shanghai were selected and appraised, 35 of which were recommended to enter the competition for the best national courses. The Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (MEC) chose 135 courses for focused development. In the same year, 403 pedagogical achievements won the Shanghai Pedagogical Award, 49 of which were granted the Fifth National Higher Education Pedagogical Award. By the end of November 2005, institutions of higher education in Shanghai had filed 2,576 patent applications and were granted 1,007 patents. Shanghai ranked first in China in this regard. Institutions of higher education claimed 52.53% of all winners of Shanghai Science and Technology Achievement Award; 61% of them were first prize winners and 54.2% of them were second prize winners. During the 2005 Shanghai International Industrial Fair, the exhibition section for institutions of higher education secured deals worth RMB 317 million. To further consolidate the enrolment based on the policies of “Two Entrance Examinations and Two Enrolments” annually and opening up new enrolment channels, three private universities in Shanghai were allowed to conduct their own entrance examinations, set their own enrolment standards, and recruit their own students according to relevant laws in the first half of 2005. Shanghai had always enjoyed a leading employment rate for university graduates in China, hitting 98.4% in 2005.
There were 225,800 full-time students in 159 Shanghai-based secondary vocational schools in 2005. The enrolment rate of vocational schools for senior high school students was 57:43. A total of 2.63 million students were enrolled in 1,589 non-governmental schools; 1.64 million students attended 111 secondary technical schools for adults in towns and rural areas. The full-scale revision of textbooks for secondary vocational education started; the credit system was adopted in more schools after the piloting period. At the same time, the filing of specializations in these schools evolved from manual towards computerized management. The first 34 open centers for internship and training were set up and went into full operation. Four construction projects financed by treasury bonds were fully completed. The first Starlight Program (SP)—vocational skills contest held for students of secondary vocational schools—was successfully launched. Shanghai also fulfilled the task assigned by the MOE to enroll 10,000 students from other provinces. The pilot scheme of administering vocational education for adults in these secondary vocational schools yielded favorable results, boosting these schools' capacity to launch more training programs and help stabilize the employment trend of their graduates.
In addition, with the successful implementation of the Three-Year Action Program of Vocational Education for Labor Forces in Suburban Area by SMG, new progress was achieved in training migrant workers. Shanghai conducted its first evaluation of “Unique Course” and “My Favorite Teacher” in educational programs for senior citizens. More experimental work was carried out in community-based education. “Lifelong Learning Week,” initiated by ten cities including Beijing, was successfully held in Shanghai. The management of private educational institutes offering non-degree programs was strengthened.
In 2005, the enrolment rate for the nine-year compulsory education stood over 99.99%, 99% for senior high school and 57% for institutions of higher education in Shanghai. New members of the labor force enjoyed 13 years of schooling. In 2005, there were 2,523 schools of various kinds in Shanghai. These included 807 secondary schools, 640 primary schools, 1,035 kindergartens, 28 schools for special education, and 13 reformatories. The total number of students reached 1.6003 million, with 308,200 in senior high schools or a 0.8% drop against that of 2004; 462,000 in junior high schools or a 10.7% decrease against that of 2004; 535,000 in primary schools or a 0.4% decline from that of 2004; 287,000 in kindergartens or an 8% rise over that of 2004; 5,200 in schools for special education or a 3.7% drop compared with that of 2004; and 2,900 in reformatories, with a 3.6% increase over that of 2004. Shanghai has either fulfilled or over-fulfilled the national standards set for popularizing the nine-year compulsory education: 99% of children aged between three and six were admitted in kindergartens, and 99.9% of children aged between six and ten attended primary schools.
There were 63 institutions of secondary and postsecondary education for adults—these included 21 institutions of higher education with 224,500 registered students and 42 secondary schools with 12,300 registered students. The post-secondary institutions enrolled 93,200 students in 2005, a decrease of 19.9% against that of 2004, while the secondary institutions had 3,700 enrollees. The two types of institutions graduated 76,800 and 4,400 students respectively in 2005. Shanghai had 901 secondary vocational training schools for adults, with 1.7747 million adult students completing their courses in 2005. There were 232 private educational institutes offering non-degree programs, with 9,600 of their students registering for the National Qualification Examination for Bachelor's Degree and 3,600 of them successfully completing their studies. The non-degree programs offered by Shanghai TV University attracted 72,100 students, with 26,000 enrolled in 2005. In addition, the Self-Taught Higher Education Examinations (STHEEs) covered 86 specializations for undergraduate and non-degree programs in 606 testing courses. Over 300,000 adults had already written such tests. In the STHEEs, 24 majors and 160 courses were available, and about 33,000 students passed their tests. In the first year of the implementation of the Three-Year Action Program of Vocational Education for Labor Forces in Suburban Area in 2005, 64,000 persons participated in the training courses. The total number of adults taking various training courses at different levels hit 3.5 million in 2005.
In 2005, there were 250 educational institutes for senior citizens with a student population of around 400,000. In Shanghai, there were 804,000 undergraduates and postgraduates in the institutions of higher education, including those for adults, a rise of 52,200 students or 6.9% over that of the previous year. Junior high schools graduated 153,800 students. There were 533,600 registered students in senior high schools (including secondary technical schools, senior high schools, vocational high schools, skilled worker schools, and vocational secondary schools) with a total graduate population of 172,100.
Thus, a multilayered, multifunctional, and multi-scaled adult educational network has emerged in Shanghai. Striving to establish a lifelong educational system, Shanghai initially set up a modern, open, and future-oriented framework of education for Chinese nationals. At present, Shanghai's secondary schools engage a teaching and administrative staff of 74,600 that include 68.6% or 51,200 full-time teachers. Shanghai has 49,400 teaching and administrative staff in primary schools, with 75.7% or 37,400 full-time teachers. There were 22 after-school educational organizations in Shanghai, including 16 children's palaces, five youth centers of science and technology, and one youth home, employing 1,038 teaching and administrative staff. Shanghai had 255 educational institutes jointly established by Chinese and foreign partners. There were 21 international schools. A total of 15,000 foreign children were admitted into international schools, as well as other primary and secondary schools. Foreign students studying in Shanghai-based institutions of higher education reached 26,200, up 20% over that of 2004. There were altogether 41,200 foreign students studying in Shanghai. In 2005, Shanghai granted admission to 1,679 students from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan.
Clearly, funding of education enjoyed a steady growth in 2005. The budget for educational undertakings in Shanghai totaled RMB 16.061 billion, with a 16.1% increase over that of 2004. The budgetary allocation for the urban area was RMB 3.3499 billion, with a 24.9% growth compared with that of 2004, while that for the suburban area was RMB 12.711 billion, up 13.97% over 2004.
Looking ahead, Shanghai will experience a new and steady development in education. It will focus on the development of basic education, expedite the development of higher education, step up its efforts to advance vocational education, and push for the overall reform and experimentation in education. While actively seeking expansion in the scope of education, Shanghai will commit itself to the improvement of the quality of education in order to transform itself into an international hub of business, finance, trade, and shipping. Shanghai will educate talents at all levels so as to take the lead in transforming China from a densely populated country into an enormous pool of human resources.
Shanghai plans to realize modernization in education by 2010 with the establishment of a modern educational system that is open, diversified, and excellent. It also seeks to put in place a lifelong educational system, transforming itself into a learning city. With moral education at the core, Shanghai will earnestly implement quality education with a view to cultivating students' innovative spirit and practical competence. Shanghai will adopt advanced educational concepts, as well as rational views on talents, making it possible for the educated to go through an all-round yet individualized development. A pluralistic educational system will emerge in Shanghai, with its mainstream education supported and funded by the government and private sector. The educational resources will be optimized to build a scientific, rational educational framework with a balanced layout of campuses.
Shanghai will pursue educational development with the primary aim of improving its overall strength and enhancing its people's standard of living. Educational development in Shanghai should ultimately meet people's ever-increasing demands for quality and unique education. Given its special role in China's education as a whole, Shanghai will continue to improve its overall strength in education through the nationwide services it provides, create a regional platform for human-resource development, knowledge innovation, and provision of educational services. A new round of development in Shanghai will spin off from education to enhance Shanghai's competitiveness.
"Review and Outlook." Shanghai Education. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/international-magazines/review-and-outlook
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