United Nations and the Middle East
UNITED NATIONS AND THE MIDDLE EAST
The world organization's most important contributions since 1948 are discussed in chronological order.
Arab–Israel War (1948)
The problem of Palestine was brought before the United Nations in April 1947. In May, the General Assembly set up the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. In its August report, the majority recommended a plan of partition. On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted one and decided that the British Mandate over Palestine should be terminated not later than 1 August 1948. The Jewish Agency accepted the partition plan, but the Arab Higher Committee and all Arab states rejected it.
On 14 May 1948, the British Mandate over Palestine expired. The Jewish Agency proclaimed the State of Israel on the territory allotted to the Jewish community under the partition plan. On the following day, the Arab states instituted armed action in Palestine. On 21 May, the Security Council appointed Folke Bernadotte the United Nations mediator for Palestine.
Fighting ended in June with a truce, which was followed by the dispatch of a military observer mission, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), the first UN peacekeeping operation. Bernadotte's mediation activities were cut short when he was assassinated in Jerusalem on 17 September 1948 by the Stern gang (LEHI). His work was immediately resumed by Ralph Bunche. On 11 December 1948, the General Assembly set up the UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine (France, Turkey, and the United States).
Between February and July 1949, Israel concluded armistice agreements with Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria under Bunche's auspices; he was awarded the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. The agreements gave temporary control of the Gaza Strip to Egypt; of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, to Jordan; and of the remaining parts of Palestine to Israel. With three of the four armistice agreements signed, Israel was admitted to the United Nations on 11 May 1949.
In December 1949, the General Assembly established the United Nations Relief and Works Agency to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees. The Trusteeship Council drafted a statute for the internationalization of Jerusalem in April 1950; it was rejected by Israel and Jordan.
After the conclusion of the armistice agreements, the responsibility for promoting a final settlement of the Palestine problem fell on the Conciliation Commission, but no progress was achieved. Despite the efforts of UNTSO, the situation along the armistice demarcation lines remained tense. Palestinian fida ʾiyyun (freedom fighters) carried out frequent raids against Israel, which were invariably followed by harsh retaliation by Israel's armed forces.
Tension in the region rose to a critical level in 1956, when Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company, which was controlled by British and French interests. While UN secretary-general Dag Hammarskjöld endeavored to work out a compromise solution, Israel's troops invaded Egypt on 28 October 1956 and within a few days occupied the Gaza Strip and most of the Sinai Peninsula, while an Anglo-French force landed in the Suez Canal Zone. To help resolve the crisis, the Security Council established the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to separate Egyptian and Israeli forces along the Gaza and Sinai frontiers.
On 18 May 1967, UNEF was withdrawn at Egypt's request. Three weeks later, war broke out. Hostilities started on the Egyptian front on 5 June and soon thereafter spread to the Jordanian and Syrian fronts. The war ended on 10 June with a cease-fire. By that time, Israel had taken Sinai and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
On 22 November 1967, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 242, known as the land for peace resolution, which remains the basis for a negotiated settlement. It called on the parties to seek a comprehensive settlement in the Middle East and stipulated that the establishment of a just and lasting peace should be based on the withdrawal of Israel's armed forces from territories occupied in June 1967 and the recognition of the right of all states in the region to live in peace within secure boundaries. Gunnar Jarring, special representative of the secretary-general, began a mediation mission in December 1967, but little progress was made. The mission lapsed in early 1973.
October 1973 War
War broke out on 6 October 1973, when Egypt's and Syria's forces launched simultaneous attacks against Israel's posts in the Suez Canal Zone and on the Golan Heights in order to liberate their occupied territories. As fighting intensified, especially on the Egyptian front, the Security Council met on 22 October and adopted Resolution 338, which called on
belligerents to cease fighting and begin negotiations to establish a just and durable peace on the basis of Resolution 242.
But the fighting continued. At the request of President Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt, the Soviet Union agreed to send troops to the area, a move that the United States strongly opposed. On 25 October 1973, the Security Council ordered an immediate cease-fire and established the second United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) to supervise it.
A peace conference convened in Geneva under U.S. and Soviet sponsorship in December 1973. Chaired by UN secretary-general Kurt Waldheim, it was attended by Egypt, Israel, and Jordan. Syria refused to participate, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was not invited. The conference lasted only two days, but it paved the way for U.S. mediation, which led to military disengagement agreements between Israel and Egypt and Syria.
The Camp David Accords and the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty
The peace process was revived in November 1977, when President Sadat traveled to Jerusalem. His visit was followed by direct negotiations between Egypt and Israel under U.S. auspices, which led to the Camp David Accords in September 1978 and the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel in March 1979. Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin shared the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
It was the clear intention of the parties to the peace treaty to use UNEF II and UNTSO military observers for peacekeeping along the border, but the Soviet Union, which strongly opposed the peace treaty, made it clear that it would veto an extension of UNEF II. The Security Council therefore decided to let the UNEF's mandate lapse. The U.S. later organized and financed the Multinational Force and Observers to carry out the peacekeeping functions that the UNEF II had been expected to perform.
Israel's Invasions of Lebanon
Although relations between Egypt and Israel were normalized with the peace treaty, other aspects of the Arab–Israel conflict deteriorated after Israel's invasion of Lebanon in March 1978, following a terrorist raid against Israel by PLO fighters based in southern Lebanon. On 19 March, the Security Council called on Israel to withdraw from Lebanon's territory and established the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) to confirm the withdrawal process. UNIFIL was unable to fulfill its mandate, however. In 1982, Israel again invaded Lebanon. In 1985, Israel's forces withdrew from most of the occupied territory but continued to hold a border area known as the security zone. UNIFIL remains in southern Lebanon.
Resumption of the Peace Process
The Madrid Peace Conference on the Middle East was convened in November 1991 by the United States and the Soviet Union to promote a comprehensive settlement of the Arab–Israel conflict on the basis of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338. On 13 September 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Declaration of Principles for interim self-government for the Gaza Strip and Jericho. Although the agreement is known as the Oslo Accord because of the secret negotiations held there, the PLO and Israel actually signed the text in Washington. The Oslo Accord was renegotiated in 1995 (known as Oslo 2). The United Nations played a marginal role in negotiating and implementing these agreements, but the world body's ability to continue virtually came to a halt during the second intifada early in September 2000 (see below). It has, however, been active in international assistance supporting the implementation of the declaration of principles.
The United Nations maintains three peace-keeping operations in the area: the UN Disengagement Observer Force on the Golan Heights, UNIFIL, and UNTSO. UNRWA assists about 3.2 million Palestinian refugees in Gaza, the West Bank, and neighboring Arab states.
The Rebellion in Lebanon
In May 1958, a rebellion by armed Muslims broke out in Lebanon when President Camille Chamoun, a Christian Maronite, announced his intention to seek a constitutional amendment that would enable him to stand for a second term. Lebanon's government brought the matter before the Security Council, charging that the United Arab Republic (formed temporarily by the union of Egypt and Syria under Nasser) was supporting the rebellion.
By Resolution 128 of 11 June 1958, the Security Council decided to dispatch the UN Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL). By August 1958, General Fuʾad Chehab, the Maronite commander of the army, had been elected president of Lebanon, effectively removing the question of a second term for Chamoun. In November 1958, Lebanon's government informed the Security Council that cordial and close relations had been reestablished between Lebanon and the United Arab Republic. UNOGIL was terminated the following month.
In September 1962, a rebellion led by the army overthrew Imam Muhammad al-Badr and proclaimed the Yemen Arab Republic. Following his overthrow, the imam rallied the tribes in the northern part of the country and, with financial and material support from Saudi Arabia, the royalists fought a fierce guerrilla war against republican forces. At the beginning of October 1962, Egyptian troops were dispatched to Yemen at the request of the revolutionary government. After the 1962 session of the General Assembly, UN Secretary-General U Thant undertook a peace initiative. In April 1963, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the Yemen Arab Republic accepted his disengagement plan. Saudi Arabia would terminate all support to the Yemeni royalists and Egypt would withdraw its troops from Yemen. A demilitarized zone would be established on each side of the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen, and impartial observers would monitor the disengagement.
The UN Observation Mission in Yemen (UNYOM) began operations in July 1963. Following the conference of Arab heads of state at Cairo in mid-January 1964, relations between Egypt and Saudi Arabia improved markedly. UNYOM was withdrawn on 4 September 1964.
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
On 9 August 1973, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Resolution 1818 established the Economic Commission for Western Asia as the successor to the United Nations Economic and Social Office in Beirut to facilitate development within and outside the region. Largely because of the awkwardness of excluding Israel from the "region," this was the last UN regional commission to be created (the first began in 1947), and on 26 July 1985 ECOSOC added social aspects to the commission's work and changed its title to the Economic and Social Commission for Western Africa (ESCWA). As a result of insecurity, the headquarters were relocated temporarily from Beirut to Amman, and then to Baghdad in 1982. After the beginning of the Gulf War, the headquarters were relocated to Amman once again in 1991. In July 1994, the General Assembly decided that the commission would return to Beirut; and UN secretary-general Kofi Annan inaugurated the permanent headquarters in March 1998.
Following the outbreak of fighting between the Greek and Turkish communities on Cyprus in December 1963, the conflict was brought before the
Security Council. By Resolution 186 of 4 March 1964, the council established the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) to prevent a recurrence of fighting and to return normal conditions to the island. UNFICYP became operational on 13 March. After August 1964, quiet was restored, and it lasted until July 1974, when supporters of enosis (union of Cyprus with Greece) staged a coup d'état against the Cyprus government. Turkey launched an extensive military operation on the island. The fighting ended in August 1974. By that time, Turkey's army controlled about 38 percent of northern Cyprus. To prevent a recurrence of fighting, UNFICYP established a zone across the island between the Cyprus National Guard to the south and the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot forces to the north.
Resolution 186 also asked the UN secretary-general to appoint a mediator to promote a peaceful settlement of the Cyprus problem. The first mediator, Galo Plaza Lasso, reported in April 1965 that a settlement could best be achieved on the basis of a unitary government with adequate protection and guarantees for individual and minority rights. His report was rejected by the Turkish side and Plaza Lasso resigned in December 1965. Intercommunal talks began in 1968 under the auspices of the UN secretary-general, but they made little progress.
In February 1975, the Turkish Cypriot leadership announced the establishment of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in the northern part of the island. Known after 1983 as the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus, it failed to receive international recognition. UN-sponsored intercommunal negotiations finally resulted, in February 2004, in an agreement to have a unified island become a member of the European Union in May 2004. UNFICYP, whose mandate has been repeatedly extended, continues to deploy military personnel.
Bahrain, which until 1970 had "special treaty relations" with the former colonial power, Britain, was claimed by Iran because the island had been under its sovereign jurisdiction before 1783. Britain announced its intention to withdraw from East of Suez in 1968, and in early 1969 Iran and Britain asked Secretary-General U Thant to help resolve the disputed territory. Following nearly one year of negotiations, an agreement was reached under which U Thant would appoint a personal representative to ascertain the wishes of the people of Bahrain.
A resulting April 1970 report affirmed that the overwhelming majority of the people of Bahrain wished it to be a fully independent and sovereign state. On 11 May 1970, the Security Council endorsed the findings. Shortly thereafter, Bahrain gained its independence; it became a UN member in September 1971.
On 27 December 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan to assist the communist-led government in its fight against insurgent movements. It was soon embroiled in a guerrilla war with the fighters of the Afghan resistance, known as Mojahedin, who received substantial financial and material support from Pakistan and the United States. During the hostilities, some 3 million refugees fled to Pakistan and about 2 million to Iran.
On 14 January 1980, the General Assembly adopted a resolution that called for the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Afghanistan. In February 1981, UN secretary-general Kurt Waldheim appointed Javier Pérez de Cuéllar as his personal representative to deal with the situation. When Pérez de Cuéllar succeeded Waldheim as secretary-general in January 1982, the mission was taken over by Diego Cordovez.
Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed in 1982 to engage in indirect negotiations, with Cordovez as intermediary. Those negotiations led to the conclusion, in Geneva, of the April 1988 Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation relating to Afghanistan. Both Afghanistan and Pakistan undertook not to interfere in the internal affairs of the other state, and the Soviet Union and the United States agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The agreements also provided for a phased withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan by 15 February 1989 and for the establishment of the UN Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP), which was set up at the end of April 1988, to monitor implementation. Besides monitoring the withdrawal of the Red Army, UNGOMAP assisted in the voluntary return of refugees to Afghanistan. The final withdrawal of the Soviet Union's 100,300 troops was completed on 12 February 1989. UNGOMAP was terminated in March 1990.
The civil war continued after the Soviet withdrawal, and the two superpowers continued to send weapons until January 1991. In May 1991, the UN secretary-general proposed a peace plan that called for free and fair elections leading to the establishment of a broad-based government. In April 1992, the communist regime collapsed with the defeat of the government forces, but this did not stop the civil war; fighting continued between rival Mojahedin factions.
In September 1996, the Taliban, a group comprised of Afghans trained in religious schools in Pakistan and former Mojahedin fighters, captured Kabul with the stated aim of setting up a pure Islamic state. Following an American attack (see below), the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001, and in December the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) was established after a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, led by Special Representative of the Secretary-General Lakhdar Brahimi. The AIA was inaugurated on 22 December 2001, with a six-month mandate, to be followed by a two-year transitional authority.
On 22 September 1980, the armed forces of Iraq invaded Iran and soon occupied a sizable portion of its territory. By Resolution 479 of 28 September 1980, the Security Council called upon Iran and Iraq to refrain from further use of force and to settle their dispute by peaceful means, but Iran rejected the resolution as one-sided. On 11 November, Secretary-General Waldheim appointed Olof Palme as his special representative to promote a peace settlement. Palme made some initial progress, but a peace settlement remained elusive.
During the initial phase of the war, Iraq's forces advanced inside Iran. In December 1980, Iranian forces stopped the advance, and by late 1982 they had pushed the Iraqi troops back in some areas beyond the border. Then fighting settled into a stalemate. Both parties engaged in frequent air attacks against military and oil installations and urban civilian areas.
Facilitated by the waning of the Cold War, on 20 July 1987 the Security Council adopted Resolution 598, which demanded that Iran and Iraq observe an immediate cease-fire and withdraw their forces to the international border. Intensive diplomatic negotiations lasted until 8 August 1988, when both parties formally accepted the cease-fire arrangements.
The next day, the Security Council established the UN Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) to supervise the cease-fire and the withdrawal process. The mission began operations in mid-August with 400 military observers and about 500 military support personnel. After the cessation of hostilities, Iran and Iraq began direct talks to settle outstanding issues. On 15 August 1990, shortly after its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq lifted its claim over the Shatt al-Arab, thus removing a major cause of conflict with Iran. UNIIMOG was terminated on 28 February 1991.
Following the war, Pérez de Cuéllar used the close relationship he had developed with Iran's leaders to obtain the release of hostages in Beirut. After securing Iran's cooperation in 1989, he asked Giandomenico Picco to deal with this matter in a one-man secret mission. Almost four years later, the mission resulted in the release of eleven Western hostages detained in Beirut and of ninety-one Lebanese held by kidnap groups.
In 1985, Secretary-General Pérez de Cuéllar and the chairman of the Organization of African Unity sought to promote a peaceful settlement of the conflict between Morocco and POLISARIO (Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia al-Hamra y Río de Oro) over Western Sahara. In August 1988, the two warring parties accepted the settlement proposals in principle. Those proposals envisaged a
cease-fire followed by a referendum that would enable the people of Western Sahara to choose between independence and continued union with Morocco.
In April 1991, the secretary-general submitted to the Security Council a detailed plan for implementing the settlement proposals. It provided for the establishment of the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) and contained a tentative timetable for the operation, according to which the referendum would be held twenty weeks after the ceasefire. On 29 April 1991, the Security Council approved the implementation plan and established MINURSO, and on 24 May the secretary-general announced that the cease-fire would enter into effect on 6 September 1991. As an interim measure, military observers were sent to Western Sahara to monitor the ceasefire.
MINURSO's Identification Commission was established in May 1993, and registration of voters began in August 1994 and was completed in December 1999. A crucial issue in the process involved the identification of applicants from three contested tribal groups. Although divergent views still exist between the parties and elections are yet to be held, the situation in Western Sahara has been generally quiet.
The Gulf Crisis and its Aftermath
On 2 August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, quickly occupied the country, and annexed it. On the same day, the Security Council condemned the invasion and demanded the immediate withdrawal of Iraq's forces. When Iraq failed to comply, the council met again on 6 August and imposed economic sanctions. On 29 November, it adopted Resolution 678, which authorized member states cooperating with Kuwait to use all necessary measures to implement its resolutions if Iraq failed to withdraw by 15 January 1991.
On 16 January 1991, coalition forces led by the United States launched military operations against Iraq. The United Nations was on the sidelines during the Gulf War, but it played a key role again after the military operations were suspended on 28 February. At that time, coalition forces had driven Iraq's troops from Kuwait and had occupied southern Iraq.
On 2 March 1991, the Security Council demanded that Iraq implement all its resolutions and specified the measures to be taken to end the hostilities. The next day, an informal cease-fire was signed by military commanders in the field. On 3 April 1991, the Security Council adopted Resolution 687, which laid down in detail the specific terms that Iraq must accept in order to obtain a formal cease-fire. After receiving Iraq's official acceptance, the Security Council established the UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission to supervise the cease-fire and monitor a demilitarized zone between Iraq and Kuwait.
In the aftermath of the Gulf War, the Kurdish population in northern Iraq and the Shiʿites in the south rebelled against the government, which took harsh actions to suppress the rebellions. By Resolution 688 of 5 April 1991, the Security Council demanded that Iraq immediately end the repression and give international humanitarian organizations access to all those in need of assistance within its territory. A UN humanitarian operation to provide food and essential relief supplies in all parts of Iraq, especially in the northern Kurdish area, was launched. Indeed, this was the first in a series of military interventions in the 1990s to foster humanitarian values as the theme of "sovereignty as responsibility" gained resonance.
Sanctions were not lifted by the Security Council until May 2003 (see below) because Iraq under Saddam Hussein never fully complied with the conditions of the initial resolutions to end the war or with the thirteen subsequent ones passed by the Security Council between 1991 and 2002. The negative impact of sanctions on the lives of Iraqis became controversial even after the institution of an oilfor-food program. An innovation approved by the Security Council in Resolution 687 was the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM), which from 1991 to 1998 sought to find and eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. Iraq's lack of compliance and the eventual rejection of UNSCOM would later become an issue in the United States–United Kingdom invasion of Iraq in March 2003 (see below).
After 11 September 2001: Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
The attack by al-Qaʿida operatives on the World Trade Center and on the Pentagon on 11 September 2001 altered substantially the security equation in the Middle East and around the world. On 12 September, the Security Council adopted the strong condemnatory Resolution 1368, which termed these assaults a threat to international peace and security and referred to the right of self-defense. Later that same month, Resolution 1373 obliged member states under Chapter VII of the UN charter to cooperate in the fight against terrorism and also created the Counter-Terrorism Committee. Also in September, the General Assembly condemned the devastating attacks. Citing the provisions for self-defense under UN Charter Article 51, the United States began military operations against Afghanistan on 7 October 2001 and overthrew the Taliban government in November (see above). With the United Nations playing a substantial role in helping to rebuild political structures, almost 10,000 U.S. troops remained in the country along with the UN-approved International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) under NATO auspices. ISAF maintained security around Kabul but resisted pressures to deploy elsewhere until late 2003, when a decision was made to do so. At the same time, the security situation remained tenuous, with al-Qaʿida's leader, Osama bin Ladin, apparently at large.
In the fall of 2002, the United States opened a new front in its war on terrorism and weapons of mass destruction with an attack on the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. In December 1999, the Security Council had created the UN Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Committee (UNMOVIC) to replace UNSCOM; in October 2002, resolution 1441, which had unanimous support, granted UNMOVIC unconditional and unrestricted access to locations in Iraq, including those previously termed sensitive sites. UNMOVIC's mandate was to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction and to monitor
conformity with its obligations not to reacquire the weapons prohibited by the Security Council. Citing Iraq's lack of compliance with UN resolutions, the United States and the United Kingdom went to war in Iraq on 23 March 2003 without Security Council approval. They had withdrawn a draft resolution following a heated debate that reflected divisions not only among Western states but throughout the world. One of the main points of contention was the need to permit more time for inspections. Saddam Hussein's regime fell on 9 April 2003 and U.S. president George W. Bush declared victory on 1 May, although substantial resistance continued.
Security Council Resolution 1483 brought the United Nations back into the picture and led to the end of sanctions and the beginning of the world organization's involvement on the ground. U.S. insistence on maintaining political and military control inside occupied Iraq prevented a more diverse international presence. The attack on the UN's Baghdad headquarters on 19 August 2003 led to the highest death toll in the history of the organization, killing twenty-two people, including the special representative of the secretary-general, Sergio Vieira de Mello.
The United States and the United Kingdom returned to the United Nations in the hope of securing more international military and financial support for the war's aftermath. The Security Council passed Resolution 1511 on 16 October 2003, which appeared to have been helpful in securing modest financial pledges at a donors' conference held shortly thereafter in Madrid. However, the resolution did not secure substantial military forces from other states, which sought a clearer role for the United Nations. At the outset of 2004, there was still no evidence that Iran had either weapons of mass destruction or links to al-Qaʿida, which were the main reasons the administrations of U.S. president George W. Bush and U.K. prime minister Tony Blair had cited for going to war.
Ongoing Israeli–Palestinian Conflict
The second armed intifada, or uprising, began in September 2000 after a near-breakthrough in the final days of the administration of President Bill Clinton, who had sought to bridge the divide between Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestine Authority president Yasir Arafat. Following the election of Ariel Sharon as prime minister of Israel, violence involving Palestinian suicide bombings of Israeli civilians and harsh Israeli repression and assassinations continued and worsened. A suicide bombing at a Netanya hotel during the Passover holiday led to a massive Israeli attack against the Jenin refugee camp in April 2002, and a fierce battle ensued. In response to Palestinian accusations of a massacre, the Security Council asked the United Nations to investigate the events in Jenin, but Israel, after having initially agreed to permit access, did not do so. Under pressure after widespread criticism of its unilateral approach to Iraq and to international relations more generally, in April 2003 the Bush administration published a "road map" to encourage a break in the violence and eventual political negotiations for the creation of a Palestinian state. The road map was created by a quartet, whose members were the United States, the United Nations, Russia, and the European Union.
see also afghanistan: u.s. intervention in; annan, kofi a.; aqsa intifada, al-; arab higher committee (palestine); arab–israel war (1948); arab–israel war (1967); arab–israel war (1973); bahrain; bernadotte, folke; bin ladin, osama; bunche, ralph j.; fidaʾiyyun; gulf crisis (1990–1991); hammarskjÖld, dag; iran–iraq war (1980–1988); jewish agency for palestine; mandate system; oslo accord (1993); pakistan and the middle east; palestine liberation organization (plo); partition plans (palestine); pÉrez de cuÉllar, javier; polisario; qaʿida, al-; sanctions, iraqi; suez crisis (1956–1957); taliban; united nations emergency force; united nations interim force in lebanon; united nations relief and works agency for palestine refugees in the near east (unrwa); united nations special committee on palestine, 1947 (unscop); war in iraq (2003); western sahara war; yemen civil war.
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Krasno, Jean E., and Sutterlin, James S. The United Nations and Iraq: Defanging the Viper. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Sherif, Regina S., ed. United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab–Israeli Conflict Vol. 2, 1975–1981. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1988.
Simpson, Michael, ed. United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab–Israeli Conflict Vol. 3, 1982–1986. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1987.
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updated by thomas g. weiss
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