Skip to main content

Tripartite Treaty of Alliance


Agreement regulating Allied occupation of Iran during World War II.

Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the British and Soviet governments jointly demanded that Iran, which bordered the southern Soviet Union, expel an estimated 2,000 Germans working on various projects there. Dissatisfied with the pace of Iran's response, British and Soviet military forces jointly invaded Iran on 25 August 1941, routed its armed forces within days, and occupied the country. To harmonize the occupation with the aims of the Atlantic Charter, which had been promulgated by Britain and the United States less than two weeks before the invasion, Britain and the Soviet Union signed a Tripartite Treaty of Alliance with Iran on 29 January 1942. Under the terms of this agreement, the Allies pledged to respect the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and political independence of Iran, and to withdraw all their military forces from the country within six months after the cessation of all hostilities.


Avery, Peter. Modern Iran. New York: Praeger, 1965.

eric hooglund

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Tripartite Treaty of Alliance." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . 22 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Tripartite Treaty of Alliance." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . (February 22, 2019).

"Tripartite Treaty of Alliance." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved February 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.