Skip to main content

Roca Rodríguez, Vicente Ramón (1792–1858)

Roca Rodríguez, Vicente Ramón (1792–1858)

Vicente Ramón Roca Rodríguez (b. 2 September 1792; d. 23 February 1858), member of ruling triumvirate (March 1845–October 1845), president of Ecuador (1846–1849). A coastal businessman born in Guayaquil, Roca helped lead the 9 October 1820 uprising that brought independence to Guayaquil. He served as a deputy to the Riobamba convention of 1830 that separated Ecuador from Gran Colombia. Roca held several posts in the new government: vice president of the Congress (1833), governor of Guayas (1835), and senator from Guayas (1837–1839). Roca played a leading role in the 6 March 1845 overthrow of President Juan José Flores. The subsequent Roca administration faced serious financial problems and repeated coup attempts.

As Congress was pondering impeachment in 1846, news arrived of a planned invasion by former president Flores, backed by 30 million pesos from the Spanish government. South America rallied to Ecuador's side, and Spain withdrew its support for Flores. But if the Spanish threat had temporarily united Ecuador, the cost of building defenses had diverted scarce resources away from urgent domestic concerns, thus weakening the young nation in the long run. Roca raised money through forced contributions and the advance collection of the Indian tribute, both extremely unpopular measures. When Roca left office in 1849, Ecuador fell into fractious dispute, and drifted into a disastrous civil war. He died in Guayaquil.

See alsoFlores, Juan José .


On nineteenth-century Ecuadorian politics, see Mark J. Van Aken's splendid study, King of the Night: Juan José Flores and Ecuador, 1824–1864 (1989). Also consult Frank MacDonald Spindler's descriptive narrative, Nineteenth Century Ecuador: An Historical Introduction (1987).

Additional Bibliography

Febres Cordero, Francisco. De Flores a flores y miel. Quito: Ojo de Pez, EDIMPRES, 1996.

Ortíz M., José Luis. Guayaquil: Historia y futuro. Ecuador: Fundación Vicente Rocafuerta, 2000.

                                                     Ronn F. Pineo

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Roca Rodríguez, Vicente Ramón (1792–1858)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 23 Jan. 2019 <>.

"Roca Rodríguez, Vicente Ramón (1792–1858)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (January 23, 2019).

"Roca Rodríguez, Vicente Ramón (1792–1858)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 23, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.