Skip to main content

Riohacha

Riohacha

Riohacha is a town and provincial jurisdiction (also known as Río de la Hacha) on Colombia's Caribbean coast, in the Audiencia of Santa Fe de Bogotá and, in the eighteenth century, the Viceroyalty of the New Kingdom of Granada. Spanish mariners first sailed past the Guajira peninsula in 1499. The region, however, which corresponds to the present-day Colombian state of La Guajira, remained an underdeveloped frontier for most of the colonial period, its pearl beds and strategic location notwithstanding. Likewise, the port of Riohacha, established in 1545, seldom approached the status of Santa Marta to the southwest. Poor and isolated from Cartagena de Indias by prevailing currents and winds, the town became an easy target for pirates.

In the late 1600s and the 1700s, English and Dutch smugglers and Guajiro Indians dominated economic life in the area and posed a military threat to the port. Successive viceregal governments attempted to impose Spanish power on the peninsula, but they largely failed. The city's mention in Gabriel García Márquez's novel One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) brought Riohacha international fame.

See alsoColombia: From the Conquest Through Independence; Colombia: Since Independence; García Márquez, Gabriel.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Grahn, Lance R. "Guajiro Culture and Capuchin Evangelization: Missionary Failure on the Riohacha Frontier." In The New Latin American Mission History, eds. Erick Detlef Langer and Robert H. Jackson. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Kuethe, Allan J. "The Pacification Campaign on the Riohacha Frontier." Hispanic American Historical Review 50 (1970): 467-481.

Perrin, Michel. The Way of the Dead Indians: Guajiro Myths and Symbols, trans. Michael Fineberg with the author. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987.

Tirado, Ernesto Restrepo. Historia de la provincia de Santa Marta, 2 vols. Bogotá: Ministerio de Educación Nacional, Ediciones de la Revista Bolívar, 1953.

Weston, Julian A. The Cactus Eaters. London: H. F. & G. Witherby, 1937.

Wilbert, Johannes. Survivors of Eldorado: Four Indian Cultures of South America. New York: Praeger, 1972.

                                           Lance R. Grahn

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Riohacha." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Riohacha." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/riohacha

"Riohacha." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/riohacha

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.