Revoltosos, insurgents and political refugees, both rightist and leftist, who used the United States as a base for revolution in Mexico from 1900 to the early 1920s. As exiles in revolt, the revoltosos were the object of suppression by both American and Mexican authorities.
Mexico's revoltosos were a varied group, often appearing to be an incoherent conglomeration of rival elements. Ideologically they ranged from the socialist and anarchist followers of Ricardo Flores Magón (magonistas, members of the Mexican Liberal Party) to the reactionary, proclerical proponents of Porfirio Díaz's nephew, Félix Díaz (felicistas). At various points along the spectrum were Pizaña "seditionists," orozquistas, zapatistas, obregonistas, reyistas, maderistas, maytorenistas, vazquistas, villistas, carrancistas, huertistas, científicos, and other assorted groups of the Right and Left. The magonistas and the "seditionists" of south Texas were the most consistently radical. All of these groups made alliances with their rivals. The characteristics they shared were hostility toward the established Mexican government and a desire to use the United States as a revolutionary (or counterrevolutionary) base.
Most of the existing literature treats specific revoltoso groups. The only general study is W. Dirk Raat, Revoltosos: Mexico's Rebels in the United States, 1903–1923 (1981). For printed documents see Manuel González Ramírez, ed., Epistolario y textos de Ricardo Flores Magón (1973).
Balderrama, Francisco E., and Raymond Rodriguez. Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
Rosales, Francisco A. Pobre raza!: Violence, Justice, and Mobilization among México Lindo Immigrants, 1900–1936. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999.
Ruíz, Vicki, and John R. Chávez. Memories and Migrations: Mapping Boricua and Chicana Histories. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.
W. Dirk Raat