Mixtón War (1541–1542), a rebellion of the Chichimecs of Nueva Galicia, Mexico, that nearly rid the region of Spaniards. Reacting to the brutal legacy of Nuño de Guzmán, more recent abuse by encomenderos, and the attempted imposition of alien ways, these semi- and nonsedentary peoples were aroused by their religious leaders, who promised divinely sanctioned victory and a variety of spiritual and material rewards. Early Spanish attempts to defeat the rebels in their hilltop strongholds, including one known as Mixtón, failed; Pedro de Alvarado was killed in one attack after his horse fell on him. By late 1541, Guadalajara was in danger, and the Spanish prevailed only after Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza stormed into the area with a force of around 180 mounted Spaniards and thousands of indigenous central Mexican allies. These were commanded by their own nobility, who were given the right to ride horses, carry Iberian weapons, and enslave captured enemies—a right also enjoyed by Spaniards. Some of the allies helped establish fortified settlements on the route north. Ultimately, the pacification of Nueva Galicia paved the way for the discovery of the silver mines of Zacatecas in 1546, and thus the development of New Spain's economic underpinning.
This critical episode in the establishment of colonial New Spain has not received much scholarly attention in recent times. A standard account can be found in Arthur Scott Aiton, Antonio de Mendoza: First Viceroy of New Spain (1927). The war receives briefer treatment in Philip Wayne Powell, Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: The Northward Advance of New Spain, 1550–1600 (1952).
Peggy K. Liss, Mexico Under Spain, 1521–1556: Society and the Origins of Nationality (1975). A narrative by an indigenous leader, Francisco De Sandoval Acazitli, cacique of Tlalmanalco, can be found in Joaquín García Icazbalceta, ed., Colección de documentos para la historia de México, vol. 2 (repr. 1971), pp. 307-333.
Weigand, Phil C., and Celia García de Weigand. Los orígenes de los caxcanes y su relación con la guerra de los nayaritas: Una hipótesis. Zapopan, Jalisco: El Colegio de Jalisco, 1995.
"Mixtón War." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mixton-war
"Mixtón War." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mixton-war
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.