Malaspina, Alejandro (1754–1810)
Malaspina, Alejandro (1754–1810)
Alejandro Malaspina (b. 5 November 1754; d. 9 April 1810), Spanish naval officer and explorer. Alejandro Malaspina, a Spanish subject born in Mulazzo, in the Duchy of Parma, Italy, entered Spain's navy in 1774 as a midshipman and rose quickly through the ranks. After serving in Gibraltar, he circumnavigated the earth from 1786 to 1788 as commander of La Astrea. As a captain, Malaspina was given command of a five-year around-the-world scientific exploratory mission departing from Cádiz on 30 July 1789. The expedition sailed around the tip of South America and surveyed various Spanish ports. From Acapulco, Malaspina explored northward to the sixtieth parallel, visiting Alaska, Nootka Sound (Vancouver Island), and Monterey, California. His men gathered scientific data and charted the coastline before returning to Mexico. The ships sailed for the Philippines and Australia before recrossing the Pacific to South America and Spain. Prior to publishing his materials, Malaspina fell victim to court intrigue in 1795; he was imprisoned and stripped of his rank. After about eight years in jail, Malaspina was exiled to Parma, where he died.
Not until 1885 did a one-volume account of his expedition appear in print. In the early twenty-first century, however, Malaspina's work has added valuable scientific and visual data to existing knowledge about the natural history of New World areas during the late eighteenth century.
Donald C. Cutter, Malaspina in California (1960).
Iris H. W. Engstrand, Spanish Scientists in the New World: The Eighteenth-Century Expeditions (1981).
Pedro Novo y Colson, ed., Viaje político-científico alrededor del mundo por las corbetas Descubierta y Atrevida (1885, 1984).
Carmen Sotos Serrano, Los Pintores de la Expedición de Alejandro Malaspina (1982).
Manfredi, Dario. Alejandro Malaspina: La América imposible. Madrid: Compañía Literaria, 1994.
Pimentel, Juan. La física de la monarquía: Ciencia y política en el pensamiento colonial de Alejandro Malaspina (1754–1810). Aranjuez (Madrid): Doce Calles, 1998.
Iris H. W. Engstrand
"Malaspina, Alejandro (1754–1810)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/malaspina-alejandro-1754-1810
"Malaspina, Alejandro (1754–1810)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved March 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/malaspina-alejandro-1754-1810
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.