Skip to main content

Flores Jijón, Antonio (1833–1915)

Flores Jijón, Antonio (1833–1915)

Antonio Flores Jijón (b. 23 October 1833; d. 30 August 1915), president of Ecuador (1888–1892). Born in Quito, Antonio was the son of Juan José Flores, Ecuador's first president. Antonio Flores Jijón completed his secondary education in Paris. In 1845, he entered the University of San Marcos in Lima, where he completed a law degree and joined the faculty.

Flores Jijón returned to Ecuador with Gabriel García Moreno (president, 1860–1865) in 1860. Thereafter, he represented Ecuador in various diplomatic posts in Colombia, France, England, the Vatican, Peru, Spain, and the United States.

An unsuccessful candidate for the presidency in 1875, he opposed the government of General Ignacio de Veintimilla (1876–1883), for which he was exiled. He lived in New York from 1878 to 1883, then returned to Ecuador in 1883 to participate in the ouster of Veintimilla and in the writing of a new constitution. During the José María Plácido Caamaño presidency (1883–1888), Flores Jijón represented Ecuador in Europe, and in fact was in Paris in 1888 when he was elected president.

During his term, Flores Jijón sought to implement a progressive program with the support of moderates within the conservative and liberal parties. His government emphasized improved and expanded public education and public works, respect for civil liberties, and administrative, financial, and tax reforms. His accomplishments in the area of public finances included the suppression of the tithe, a renegotiation of the internal and external debt, reform of the customs tariff, state monopolies, and taxes on real estate. Many of his initiatives met strong opposition from conservatives and the clergy. After completing his term in 1892, Flores returned to Europe. He died in Geneva.

See alsoEcuador: Since 1830; Garcia Moreno, Gabriel; Veintemilla, José Ignacio de.


Luis Robalino Dávila, Orígines del Ecuador de hoy: Diez años de civilismo, vol. 6 (1968).

Carlos Manuel Larrea, Antonio Flores Jijón (1974).

Frank MacDonald Spindler, Nineteenth-Century Ecuador (1987), esp. pp. 126-137.

Additional Bibliography

Guzmán Polanco, Manuel de. Antonio Flores Jijón. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión," 2002.

                              Linda Alexander RodrÍguez

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Flores Jijón, Antonio (1833–1915)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 18 Sep. 2019 <>.

"Flores Jijón, Antonio (1833–1915)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (September 18, 2019).

"Flores Jijón, Antonio (1833–1915)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved September 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.